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What Do Budget Deficits Do?

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  • Laurence Ball
  • N. Gregory Mankiw

Abstract

This paper discusses the effects of budget deficits on the economy in four steps. First, it reviews standard theory about how budget deficits influence saving, investment, the trade balance, interest rates, exchange rates, and long-term growth. Second, it offers a rough estimate of the magnitude of some of the effects. Third, it discusses how budget deficits affect economic welfare. Finally, it considers the possibility that continuing budget deficits in a country could lead to a 'hard landing' in which the demand for the country's assets suddenly collapses.

Suggested Citation

  • Laurence Ball & N. Gregory Mankiw, 1995. "What Do Budget Deficits Do?," NBER Working Papers 5263, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5263
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    1. B. Douglas Bernheim, 1987. "Ricardian Equivalence: An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1987, Volume 2, pages 263-316 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    3. Martin Feldstein, 1992. "The Budget and Trade Deficits Aren't Really Twins," NBER Working Papers 3966, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Strauch, Rolf & Paesani, Paolo & Kremer, Manfred, 2006. "Public debt and long-term interest rates: the case of Germany, Italy and the USA," Working Paper Series 656, European Central Bank.
    2. Ramon Moreno, 1995. "Budget deficit cuts and the dollar," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue dec15.
    3. Kieran Mc Morrow & Werner Röger, 2003. "Economic and financial market consequences of ageing populations," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 182, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    4. Reinhart, Carmen M. & Reinhart, Vincent & Rogoff, Kenneth, 2015. "Dealing with debt," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(S1), pages 43-55.
      • Carmen M. Reinhart & Vincent Reinhart & Kenneth Rogoff, 2014. "Dealing with Debt," NBER Chapters,in: NBER International Seminar on Macroeconomics 2014, pages 43-55 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Lindblad, Hans & Sellin, Peter, 2003. "The Equilibrium Rate of Unemployment and the Real Exchange Rate: An Unobserved Components System Approach," Working Paper Series 152, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
    6. Kuttner, Kenneth N. & Posen, Adam S., 2002. "Fiscal Policy Effectiveness in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 536-558, December.
    7. Ramírez-Cedillo, Eduardo. & López-Herrera, Francisco., 2014. "Inversión pública y privada en México y su incidencia en el crecimiento," Panorama Económico, Escuela Superior de Economía, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, vol. 0(19), pages 53-76, segundo s.
    8. Kosec, Katrina, 2014. "Relying on the private sector: The income distribution and public investments in the poor," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 320-342.
    9. Douglas W. Elmendorf, "undated". "The Effect of Deficit-Reduction Laws on Real Interest Rates," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1996-44, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    10. Ben Yaala, sirine & Henchiri, jamel E., 2016. "Impact of Macroeconomic and Demographic Variables on the Stock Market: Evidence from Tunisian Crisis," MPRA Paper 76783, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Fabian Lindner, 2014. "Haben die knappen Weltersparnisse die US-Immobilienblase finanziert?," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 40(1), pages 33-61.
    12. Lindblad, Hans & Sellin, Peter, 2006. "A Simultaneous Model of the Swedish Krona, the US Dollar and the Euro," Working Paper Series 193, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
    13. Alexia Prskawetz & Gustav Feichtinger & Mikulàš Luptàčik, 1998. "The accomplishment of the Maastricht criteria with respect to initial debt," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 68(2), pages 93-110, June.
    14. Tatsuji Hayakawa & Paul Zak, 2002. "Debt, Death and Taxes," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 9(2), pages 157-173, March.
    15. Floden, Martin, 2001. "The effectiveness of government debt and transfers as insurance," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 81-108, August.
    16. Atrayee Ghosh Roy & Hendrik Van den Berg, 2009. "Budget deficits and U.S. economic growth," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(4), pages 3015-3030.
    17. Eric M. Engen & R. Glenn Hubbard, 2005. "Federal Government Debt and Interest Rates," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2004, Volume 19, pages 83-160 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Claeys, Peter & Moreno, Rosina & Suriñach, Jordi, 2012. "Debt, interest rates, and integration of financial markets," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 48-59.
    19. Kenneth N. Kuttner & Adam S. Posen, 2002. "Passive Savers and Fiscal Policy Effectiveness in Japan," Working Paper Series WP02-2, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    20. Yaprak Gulcan & Mustafa Erhan Bilman, 2005. "The Effects of Budget Deficit Reduction on Exchange Rate: Evidence from Turkey," Discussion Paper Series 05/07, Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Business, Department of Economics, revised 12 Dec 2005.
    21. Leachman, Lori L. & Francis, Bill B., 2000. "Multicointegration Analysis of the Sustainability of Foreign Debt," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 207-227, April.
    22. Luqman SAFDAR, 2014. "The relationship between twin deficit and stock market: An ARDL approach from Pakistan," EuroEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 1(33), pages 109-121, May.

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