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Transaction Costs in Dealer Markets: Evidence From The London Stock Exchange

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  • Peter C. Reiss
  • Ingrid M. Werner

Abstract

This paper describes regularities in the intraday spreads and prices quoted by dealers on the London Stock Exchange. It develops a measure of spread-related transaction costs, one that recognizes dealers' willingness to price trades within their quoted spreads. This measure of transaction costs shows that trading costs are systematically related to a trade's size, characteristics of the trading counterparties, and security characteristics. Customers pay the full spread on small trades while medium to large trades receive more favorable execution. Market makers only discount very large customer trades while dealers regularly discount medium to large trades. Inter-dealer trades generally receive favorable execution, and discounts increase in size. Market makers do not discount trades with each other over the phone, but do discount when trading anonymously using inter-dealer-brokers. Quoted and touch spreads are falling in the number of market makers. The rate of decline is interpreted as reflecting economies of scale in market making.

Suggested Citation

  • Peter C. Reiss & Ingrid M. Werner, 1994. "Transaction Costs in Dealer Markets: Evidence From The London Stock Exchange," NBER Working Papers 4727, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4727
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    Cited by:

    1. Huang, Roger D. & Stoll, Hans R., 1996. "Dealer versus auction markets: A paired comparison of execution costs on NASDAQ and the NYSE," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 313-357, July.
    2. Vitale, Paolo, 1998. "Two months in the life of several gilt-edged market makers on the London Stock Exchange," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 8(3-4), pages 299-324, December.
    3. Levin, Eric J. & Wright, Robert E., 2004. "Estimating the profit markup component of the bid-ask spread: evidence from the London Stock Exchange," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 1-19, February.
    4. Levin, Eric J. & Wright, Robert E., 1999. "Explaining the intra-day variation in the bid-ask spread in competitive dealership markets - A research note 1," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 179-191, May.
    5. Vogler, Karl-Hubert, 1997. "Risk allocation and inter-dealer trading," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(8), pages 1615-1634, August.
    6. Naik, Narayan Y. & Yadav, Pradeep K., 2003. "Do dealer firms manage inventory on a stock-by-stock or a portfolio basis?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 325-353, August.
    7. Marco Pagano, 1998. "The Changing Microstructure of European Equity Markets," CSEF Working Papers 04, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    8. Lyons, Richard K., 1997. "A simultaneous trade model of the foreign exchange hot potato," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-4), pages 275-298, May.

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