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The Allocation of Time: Young Versus Elderly Households in Japan


  • Tadashi Yamada
  • Tetsuji Yamada


Our study shows that the household production theory illuminates the behavior of households in the allocation of time and consumption expenditures. Among the noteworthy findings derived from our data, the various household non-market time allocations (consequently, market labor supply) cannot be separated from consumption expenditures. An increase in market wage rates for both young and elderly households reduces their time spent on household nonmarket activities, such as child care, medical care, and listening to the radio and watching TV. The high opportunity costs of waiting at the hospital clearly discourage working people from visiting the hospital. These results show not a few similarities between the household non-market time allocation in Japan and that to be found in the U.S.

Suggested Citation

  • Tadashi Yamada & Tetsuji Yamada, 1993. "The Allocation of Time: Young Versus Elderly Households in Japan," NBER Working Papers 4386, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4386
    Note: LS

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Binswanger, Hans P, 1974. "The Measurement of Technical Change Biases with Many Factors of Production," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(6), pages 964-976, December.
    2. Deardorff, Alan V & Stafford, Frank P, 1976. "Compensation of Cooperating Factors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 44(4), pages 671-684, July.
    3. Deaton, Angus, 1986. "Demand analysis," Handbook of Econometrics,in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 30, pages 1767-1839 Elsevier.
    4. Juster, F Thomas & Stafford, Frank P, 1991. "The Allocation of Time: Empirical Findings, Behavioral Models, and Problems of Measurement," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 29(2), pages 471-522, June.
    5. Kooreman, Peter & Kapteyn, Arie, 1987. "A Disaggregated Analysis of the Allocation of Time within the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(2), pages 223-249, April.
    6. Biddle, Jeff E & Hamermesh, Daniel S, 1990. "Sleep and the Allocation of Time," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 922-943, October.
    7. Shimada, Haruo & Higuchi, Yoshio, 1985. "An Analysis of Trends in Female Labor Force Participation in Japan," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages 355-374, January.
    8. Linda N. Edwards, 1988. "Equal Employment Opportunity in Japan: A View from the West," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 41(2), pages 240-250, January.
    9. Tadashi Yamada & Tetsuji Yamada & Frank Chaloupka, 1987. "Using Aggregate Data to Estimate the Part-Time and Full-Time Work Behavior of Japanese Women," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 22(4), pages 574-583.
    10. Barnett, William A, 1979. "The Joint Allocation of Leisure and Goods Expenditure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(3), pages 539-563, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tetsuji Yamada & Tadashi Yamada & Chang Gun Kim & Haruko Noguchi, 1994. "Effectiveness of Government Policy: An Experience from a National HealthCare System," NBER Working Papers 4786, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply


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