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Preemptive Policies and Risk-Off Shocks in Emerging Markets


  • Mitali Das
  • Gita Gopinath
  • Ṣebnem Kalemli-Özcan


We show that “preemptive” capital flow management measures (CFM) can reduce emerging markets and developing countries' (EMDE) external finance premia during risk-off shocks, especially for vulnerable countries. Using a panel dataset of 56 EMDEs during 1996-2020 at monthly frequency, we document that countries with preemptive policies in place during the five year window before risk-off shocks experienced relatively lower external finance premia and exchange rate volatility during the shock compared to countries which did not have such preemptive policies in place. We use the episodes of Taper Tantrum and COVID-19 as risk-off shocks. Our identification relies on a difference-in-differences methodology with country fixed effects where preemptive policies are ex-ante by construction and cannot be put in place as a response to the shock ex-post. We control the effects of other policies, such as monetary policy, foreign exchange interventions (FXI), easing of inflow CFMs and tightening of outflow CFMs that are used in response to the risk-off shocks. By reducing the impact of risk-off shocks on countries' funding costs and exchange rate volatility, preemptive policies enable countries' continued access to international capital markets during troubled times.

Suggested Citation

  • Mitali Das & Gita Gopinath & Ṣebnem Kalemli-Özcan, 2021. "Preemptive Policies and Risk-Off Shocks in Emerging Markets," NBER Working Papers 29615, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:29615
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    Cited by:

    1. Leonardo Villar-Gómez & Javier Gómez & Andrés Murcia Pabón & Wilmar Cabrera & Hernando Vargas, 2023. "The monetary and macroprudential policy framework in Colombia in the last 30 years: lessons learnt and challenges for the future," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Central banking in the Americas: Lessons from two decades, volume 127, pages 87-112, Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Eugenio Cerutti & Haonan Zhou, 2024. "Uncovering CIP Deviations in Emerging Markets: Distinctions, Determinants, and Disconnect," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 72(1), pages 196-252, March.
    3. Li, Xiang & Su, Dan, 2022. "Surges and instability: The maturity shortening channel," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 139(C).
    4. Chari, Anusha & Henry, Peter Blair & Moussa, Racha, 2022. "Do finite horizons matter? The welfare consequences of capital account liberalization," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 114(C).
    5. Beck, Roland & Berganza, Juan Carlos & Brüggemann, Axel & Cezar, Rafael & Eijking, Carlijn & Eller, Markus & Fuentes, Alberto & Alves, Joel Graça & Kreitz, Lilian & Marsilli, Clement & Moder, Isabella, 2023. "Recent advances in the literature on capital flow management," Occasional Paper Series 317, European Central Bank.
    6. Ferrero, Andrea & Habib, Maurizio Michael & Stracca, Livio & Venditti, Fabrizio, 2022. "Leaning against the global financial cycle," Working Paper Series 2763, European Central Bank.
    7. Mahir Binici & Mitali Das & Evgenia Pugacheva, 2024. "The Incidence of Capital Flow Management Measures: Observations from a New Database," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 72(1), pages 441-486, March.
    8. Miguel Sarmiento, 2022. "Sudden Yield Reversals and Financial Intermediation in Emerging Markets," Borradores de Economia 1210, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    9. Apoorv Bhargava & Romain Bouis & Annamaria Kokenyne & Manuel Perez-Archila & Umang Rawat & Ms. Ratna Sahay, 2023. "Do Capital Controls Limit Inflow Surges?," IMF Working Papers 2023/050, International Monetary Fund.

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    JEL classification:

    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • F44 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - International Business Cycles

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