IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/2646.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Impact of the Agencies on Conventional Fixed-Rate Mortgage Yields

Author

Listed:
  • Patric H. Hendershott
  • James D. Shilling

Abstract

Between the early 1980s and 1986, the share of new conforming (under $153,000 in 1986) conventional fixed-rate mortgages (FRMs) that went into Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac mortgage pools increased from under 5 percent to over 50 percent. The impact of these agencies moving from negligible participants to dominant players in this market is investigated in this study by an analysis of yields on 4,900 loans closed in California during May-June 1978 and 1,800 closed in 'May-June 1986. Our analysis indicates that the loan rate depends on the loan-to-value ratio, the loan size, and, in 1986, whether the loan is far above, just above, or below the conforming loan limit. Rates on loans far above the conforming loan limit exceed those on otherwise comparable loans below the limit by 30 basis points and those on loans destined to exceed the limit within a year by 15 basis points. That is, the expanded agency securitization of conforming FRMs has significantly lowered the rates on both conforming loans and loans somewhat above the conforming limit (27 percent of nonconforming loans in 1986) relative to what they would otherwise have been. The effects of a 30 basis point lower FRM rate are many: households are more likely to choose FRMs than ARMs, to decide to own rather than rent, and to own larger houses. Moreover, traditional mortgage portfolio lenders will have fewer ARMs to purchase and will earn lower returns on FRM investments. A few sample calculations are provided to illustrate the possible magnitudes of these effects

Suggested Citation

  • Patric H. Hendershott & James D. Shilling, 1988. "The Impact of the Agencies on Conventional Fixed-Rate Mortgage Yields," NBER Working Papers 2646, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:2646
    Note: ME
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w2646.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dhillon, Upinder S & Shilling, James D & Sirmans, C F, 1987. "Choosing between Fixed and Adjustable Rate Mortgages: A Note," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 19(2), pages 260-267, May.
    2. Goodman, Allen C., 1988. "An econometric model of housing price, permanent income, tenure choice, and housing demand," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 327-353, May.
    3. Brueckner, Jan K & Follain, James R, 1988. "The Rise and Fall of the ARM: An Econometric Analysis of Mortgage Choice," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(1), pages 93-102, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Lawrence J. White & W. Scott Frame, 2004. "Emerging Competition and Risk-Taking Incentives at Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac," Working Papers 04-02, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    2. Robert DeYoung & William Hunter & Gregory Udell, 2004. "The Past, Present, and Probable Future for Community Banks," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 85-133, April.
    3. John M. Quigley, 2006. "Federal credit and insurance programs: housing," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jul, pages 281-310.
    4. Xudong An & Raphael W. Bostic, 2006. "Have the Affordable Housing Goals been a Shield against Subprime? Regulatory Incentives and the Extension of Mortgage Credit," Working Paper 8572, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    5. Hancock, Diana & Passmore, Wayne, 2016. "Cost of funds indexed mortgage contracts with government-backed catastrophic insurance (COFI-Cats): A realistic alternative to the 30-year fixed-rate mortgage?," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 109-130.
    6. Alex Kaufman, 2014. "The Influence of Fannie and Freddie on Mortgage Loan Terms," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 42(2), pages 472-496, June.
    7. Allen Huang & Benjamin Liu, 2009. "The Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Non-Bank Lender Mortgage Costs: Empirical Evidence," Discussion Papers in Finance finance:200915, Griffith University, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics.
    8. Kerry D. Vandell, 1997. "Improving secondary markets in rural America," Proceedings – Rural and Agricultural Conferences, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Apr, pages 85-120.
    9. Liu, Benjamin & Skully, Michael, 2005. "The determinants of mortgage yield spread differentials: Securitization," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 314-333, October.
    10. Ambrose, Brent W. & Buttimer, Richard Jr., 2005. "GSE impact on rural mortgage markets," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 417-443, July.
    11. Xudong An & Yongheng Deng & Stuart Gabriel, 2009. "Value Creation through Securitization: Evidence from the CMBS Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 302-326, April.
    12. Xudong An & Raphael Bostic, 2008. "GSE Activity, FHA Feedback, and Implications for the Efficacy of the Affordable Housing Goals," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 207-231, February.
    13. Andreas Lehnert & Wayne Passmore & Shane Sherlund, 2008. "GSEs, Mortgage Rates, and Secondary Market Activities," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 343-363, April.
    14. Shane M. Sherlund, 2008. "The jumbo-conforming spread: a semiparametric approach," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2008-01, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    15. Bostic, Raphael W. & Gabriel, Stuart A., 2006. "Do the GSEs matter to low-income housing markets? An assessment of the effects of the GSE loan purchase goals on California housing outcomes," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 458-475, May.
    16. Allen Huang & Benjamin Liu, 2009. "The Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Bank Mortgage Costs: Empirical Evidence," Discussion Papers in Finance finance:200914, Griffith University, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics.
    17. Allen Huang & Benjamin Liu, 2013. "The Impact of the Goods and Services Tax on Mortgage Costs: Evidence from Australian Mortgage Corporations," International Journal of Financial Research, International Journal of Financial Research, Sciedu Press, vol. 4(1), pages 54-65, January.
    18. Edward Kane, 1999. "Housing Finance GSEs: Who Gets the Subsidy?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 15(3), pages 197-209, May.
    19. Anthony A. DeFusco & Andrew Paciorek, 2017. "The Interest Rate Elasticity of Mortgage Demand: Evidence from Bunching at the Conforming Loan Limit," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 9(1), pages 210-240, February.
    20. Michael Davies & Jacob Gyntelberg & Eric Chan, 2007. "Housing finance agencies in Asia," BIS Working Papers 241, Bank for International Settlements.
    21. Wayne Passmore & Roger Sparks, 1997. "The effect of automated underwriting on the profitability of mortgage securitization," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-19, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    22. Nothaft, Frank E. & Perry, Vanessa G., 2002. "Do mortgage rates vary by neighborhood? Implications for loan pricing and redlining," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 244-265, September.
    23. Amelia Pais, 2008. "Securitization and Rate Setting in the UK Mortgage Market-super-," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 8(1-2), pages 57-80.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:2646. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.