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Liquidity Deflation and Liquidity Trap under Flexible Prices: Some Microfoundations and Implications

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  • Guillermo A. Calvo

Abstract

The paper discusses simple microfoundations for Liquidity Deflation (Calvo 2016, Chapter 2), which gives rise to liquidity trap under perfectly flexible prices/wages. Unlike Keynes (1936), this is a Supply Side Liquidity Trap, SSLT, not resolved by a fall in prices /wages, or massive helicopter increase in liquid government liabilities. However, escaping SSLT could be achieved by low policy interest rates on money (unless ZLB holds) and, more interestingly, higher inflation driven by administered prices/wages. Moreover, contrary to (Friedman 1969), under Liquidity Deflation the Optimal Quantity of Money does not call for liquidity satiation, and may be dangerously close to SSLT.

Suggested Citation

  • Guillermo A. Calvo, 2019. "Liquidity Deflation and Liquidity Trap under Flexible Prices: Some Microfoundations and Implications," NBER Working Papers 26277, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:26277
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jongrim Ha & M. Ayhan Kose & Franziska Ohnsorge, 2019. "Inflation in Emerging and Developing Economies," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 30657, June.
    2. Ricardo J. Caballero & Emmanuel Farhi & Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas, 2016. "Safe Asset Scarcity and Aggregate Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 106(5), pages 513-518, May.
    3. Gorton, Gary B., 2010. "Slapped by the Invisible Hand: The Panic of 2007," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199734153.
    4. Ha,Jongrim & Kose,Ayhan & Ohnsorge,Franziska Lieselotte, 2019. "Understanding Inflation in Emerging and Developing Economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 8761, The World Bank.
    5. Guillermo A. Calvo, 2012. "The Price Theory of Money, Prospero's Liquidity Trap, and Sudden Stop: Back to Basics and Back," NBER Working Papers 18285, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Uribe, Martin, 1997. "Hysteresis in a simple model of currency substitution," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 185-202, September.
    7. Calvo, Guillermo A & Vegh, Carlos A, 1995. "Fighting Inflation with High Interest Rates: The Small Open Economy Case under Flexible Prices," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(1), pages 49-66, February.
    8. Guillermo A. Calvo, 2016. "From Chronic Inflation to Chronic Deflation: Focusing on Expectations and Liquidity Disarray Since WWII," NBER Working Papers 22535, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • E4 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates
    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy

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