IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/1953.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Canada-U.S. Auto Pact of 1965: An Experiment in Selective Trade Liberalization

Author

Listed:
  • Melvyn Fuss
  • Leonard Waverman

Abstract

In this paper we analyse the Canada-U.S. Auto Pact, a selective trade liberalization agreement which created a duty-free North American market for the major U.S. multinational automobile producers, but continued to protect them from offshore producers. The new international trade/I.O. literature predicts that, given the probable unexploited economics of scale and specialization in the tariff-protected small Canadian economy prior to 1965, rationalization leading to large efficiency gains in Canadian production vis a vis U.S. production would occur in a free trade environment. We estimate that the Auto Pact did not induce a substantial improvement in Canadian relative production efficiency. The missing ingredient seems to have been the competition-increasing effects of free trade in an oligopolistic setting that is emphasized by the new trade/I.O. literature. The Auto Pact did not increase the number of rivals in the oligopolistic Canadian industry since the major players in the industry had production facilities on both sides of the Canada-U.S. border before 1965, and no significant new entry into Canada occurred. In the 1962-64 period, Canadian automotive production was 27% less efficient than U.S. production. By 1970-72 this deficiency had been reduced to 19%, but was not further reduced by the end of the 1970's. Of the 8 percentage points reduction in the Canadian disadvantage, we attribute only 3 percentage points to the rationalization process induced specifically by the Auto Pact.

Suggested Citation

  • Melvyn Fuss & Leonard Waverman, 1986. "The Canada-U.S. Auto Pact of 1965: An Experiment in Selective Trade Liberalization," NBER Working Papers 1953, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1953
    Note: PR
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w1953.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. McFadden, Daniel, 1978. "Cost, Revenue, and Profit Functions," Histoy of Economic Thought Chapters, in: Fuss, Melvyn & McFadden, Daniel (ed.),Production Economics: A Dual Approach to Theory and Applications, volume 1, chapter 1, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought.
    2. Melvyn A. Fuss & Leonard Waverman, 1986. "The Extent and Sources of Cost and Efficiency Differences Between U.S. and Japanese Automobile Producers," NBER Working Papers 1849, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-959, December.
    4. Harris, Richard, 1984. "Applied General Equilibrium Analysis of Small Open Economies with Scale Economies and Imperfect Competition," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(5), pages 1016-1032, December.
    5. Cox, David & Harris, Richard, 1985. "Trade Liberalization and Industrial Organization: Some Estimates for Canada," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(1), pages 115-145, February.
    6. Markusen, James R., 1981. "Trade and the gains from trade with imperfect competition," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 531-551, November.
    7. Michael Denny & M. Fuss & C. Everson & L. Waverman, 1981. "Estimating the Effects of Diffusion of Technological Innovations in Telecommunications: The Production Structure of Bell Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 14(1), pages 24-43, February.
    8. Richard H. Spady & Ann F. Friedlaender, 1978. "Hedonic Cost Functions for the Regulated Trucking Industry," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(1), pages 159-179, Spring.
    9. Brander, James A., 1981. "Intra-industry trade in identical commodities," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 1-14, February.
    10. Denny, Michael & Fuss, Melvyn, 1983. "A general approach to intertemporal and interspatial productivity comparisons," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 315-330, December.
    11. Berndt, Ernst R. & Fuss, Melvyn A., 1986. "Productivity measurement with adjustments for variations in capacity utilization and other forms of temporary equilibrium," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1-2), pages 7-29.
    12. Robidoux, B. & Lester, J., 1988. "Econometric Estimates Of Scale Economies In Canadian Manufacturing," Working Papers-Department of Finance Canada 1988-4, Department of Finance Canada.
    13. Paul Wonnacott & Ronald J. Wonnacott, 1982. "Free Trade between the United States and Canada: Fifteen Years Later," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 8(s1), pages 412-427, October.
    14. Diewert, W. E., 1976. "Exact and superlative index numbers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 115-145, May.
    15. Kim, Moshe, 1984. "The Beneficiaries of Trucking Regulation, Revisited," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 27(1), pages 227-241, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Loris Rubini, 2015. "Productivity and Trade Liberalizations in Canada," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 35(2), pages 1404-1422.
    2. Loris Rubini, 2014. "Productivity in Canada During the Auto Pact and the Free Trade Agreement," Documentos de Trabajo 455, Instituto de Economia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile..

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Melvyn A. Fuss & Leonard Waverman, 1986. "The Extent and Sources of Cost and Efficiency Differences Between U.S. and Japanese Automobile Producers," NBER Working Papers 1849, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Melvyn A. Fuss & Leonard Waverman, 1985. "Productivity Growth in the Automobile Industry, 1970-1980: A Comparisonof Canada, Japan and the United States," NBER Working Papers 1735, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Koska, Onur A. & Stähler, Frank, 2014. "Trade and imperfect competition in general equilibrium," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 157-168.
    4. Robert C. Feenstra & James A. Markusen & Andrew K. Rose, 1998. "Undertstanding the Home Market Effect and the Gravity Equation: The Role of Differentiating Goods," NBER Working Papers 6804, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Paolo Epifani, 2003. "Trade liberalization, Firm Performances and Labor Market Outcomes in the Developing World, what Can We Learn From Micro-Level Data?," Rivista italiana degli economisti, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 3, pages 455-486.
    6. Lukas Mohler, 2011. "Variety Gains from Trade in Switzerland," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 147(I), pages 45-70, March.
    7. Krugman, Paul R., 1989. "Industrial organization and international trade," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.),Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 20, pages 1179-1223, Elsevier.
    8. Markusen, James R. & Melvin, James R. & Maskus, Keith E. & Kaempfer, William, 1995. "International trade: theory and evidence," MPRA Paper 21989, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Shiro Takeda, 2010. "A computable general equilibrium analysis of the welfare effects of trade liberalization under different market structures," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(1), pages 75-93.
    10. Robert C. Feenstra, 2010. "Measuring the gains from trade under monopolistic competition," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 43(1), pages 1-28, February.
    11. Siwar Damak-Bahloul, 1991. "Rendements, substitutions et progrès techniques dans le service public tunisien des télécommunications," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 97(1), pages 49-60.
    12. Keith Head & Barbara J. Spencer, 2017. "Oligopoly in international trade: Rise, fall and resurgence," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1414-1444, December.
    13. Ian Keay, 2001. "An Empty Promise: Average Cost Savings And Scale Economies Among Canadian And American Manufacturers, 1910-1998," Working Paper 1002, Economics Department, Queen's University.
    14. Zhihao Yu, 2000. "Market Integration and Industrial Structure: Home Market Effects Revisited," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0033, Econometric Society.
    15. Mercenier, Jean, 1995. "Nonuniqueness of Solutions in Applied General Equilibrium Models with Scale Economies and Imperfect Competition," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 6(1), pages 161-177, June.
    16. Amiti, Mary, 1998. "Inter-industry trade in manufactures: Does country size matter?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 231-255, April.
    17. Thompson, Aileen J., 2002. "Import competition and market power: Canadian evidence," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 40-55, May.
    18. 武田 史郎, 2007. "貿易政策を対象とした応用一般均衡分析," Discussion Papers (Japanese) 07010, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    19. Muhammad Ali Chaudhary & Eatzaz Ahmad & Abid A. Burki & Mushtaq A. Khan, 1999. "Industrial Sector Input Demand Responsiveness and Policy Interventions," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 38(4), pages 1083-1100.
    20. Jaime de Melo & David Tarr, 2015. "VERs under imperfect competition and foreign direct investment: A case study of the US–Japan auto VER," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Modeling Developing Countries' Policies in General Equilibrium, chapter 22, pages 461-483, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1953. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.