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Input demand and the short and long-run employment thresholds: An empirical analysis for the German manufacturing sector

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  • Flaig, Gebhard
  • Rottmann, Horst

Abstract

The concept of the ’employment threshold’ plays an important role in the public discussion of unemployment. The employment threshold is defined as that growth rate of output necessary to keep employment constant despite the continuous rise in productivity. It is related to the Okun coefficient which describes the relationship between the changes in output and unemployment. Many contributions to this debate give the impression that the employment threshold is more or less a structural characteristic independent of economic variables. In this paper we derive short- and long-run employment thresholds from an input demand system and show empirically that they depend on factor prices and capital accumulation. Higher wage rates raise the employment threshold and reduce the probability that a positive output shock will increase employment.

Suggested Citation

  • Flaig, Gebhard & Rottmann, Horst, 2001. "Input demand and the short and long-run employment thresholds: An empirical analysis for the German manufacturing sector," Munich Reprints in Economics 20372, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:lmu:muenar:20372
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    1. McFadden, Daniel, 1978. "Cost, Revenue, and Profit Functions," Histoy of Economic Thought Chapters,in: Fuss, Melvyn & McFadden, Daniel (ed.), Production Economics: A Dual Approach to Theory and Applications, volume 1, chapter 1 McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought.
    2. Chambers,Robert G., 1988. "Applied Production Analysis," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521314275, April.
    3. Weiss, Andrew A., 1984. "Systematic sampling and temporal aggregation in time series models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 271-281, December.
    4. repec:mes:challe:v:31:y:1988:i:4:p:56-58 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Falk, Martin & Koebel, Bertrand M., 1997. "The Demand of Heterogeneous Labour in Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 97-28, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    6. Berndt, Ernst R. & Hesse, Dieter M., 1986. "Measuring and assessing capacity utilization in the manufacturing sectors of nine oecd countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 961-989, October.
    7. Lau, Lawrence J., 1978. "Applications of Profit Functions," Histoy of Economic Thought Chapters,in: Fuss, Melvyn & McFadden, Daniel (ed.), Production Economics: A Dual Approach to Theory and Applications, volume 1, chapter 3 McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought.
    8. Blinder, Alan S, 1997. "Is There a Core of Practical Macroeconomics That We Should All Believe?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 240-243, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Flaig Gebhard & Rottmann Horst, 2009. "Labour Market Institutions and the Employment Intensity of Output Growth," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 229(1), pages 22-35, February.
    2. Gebhard Flaig & Horst Rottmann, 2004. "Erhöht der Kündigungsschutz die Beschäftigungsschwelle?," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 57(17), pages 13-17, September.
    3. Gebhard Flaig & Wolfgang Nierhaus & Wolfgang Meister & Oscar-Erich Kuntze & Andrea Gebauer & Erich Langmantel & Martin Meurers & Monika Ruschinski & Timo Wollmershäuser, 2003. "ifo Konjunkturprognose 2004: Erholung hat begonnen," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 56(24), pages 16-42, December.
    4. Guenter Lang, 2008. "Measuring the Returns of Research and Development: An Empirical Study of the German Manufacturing Sector over 45 Years," Working Papers 10, The German University in Cairo, Faculty of Management Technology.
    5. Sarra Ben Slimane, 2015. "The Relationship between Growth and Employment Intensity: Evidence for Developing Countries," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 5(4), pages 680-692, April.
    6. Falk, Martin & Koebel, Bertrand M., 2000. "Outsourcing of services, imported materials and the demand for heterogeneous labour : an application of a generalised box-cox function," ZEW Discussion Papers 00-51, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    7. Kölling, Arnd, 2016. "Family Firms and Labor Demand: Size Matters – But Only the Small Ones are Different," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145471, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    8. Klaus Abberger & Gebhard Flaig & Wolfgang Nierhaus, 2007. "ifo Konjunkturumfragen und Konjunkturanalyse : ausgewählte methodische Aufsätze aus dem ifo Schnelldienst," ifo Forschungsberichte, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 33, June.
    9. repec:zbw:imbwps:90 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Gebhard Flaig & Horst Rottmann, 2005. "Labour Market Institutions and Employment Thresholds. An International Comparison," ifo Working Paper Series _no.15, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    11. Lang, Guenter, 2009. "Measuring the returns of R&D--An empirical study of the German manufacturing sector over 45 years," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 1438-1445, November.
    12. Jung, Sven, 2013. "Employment Adjustment in German Firms," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79696, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    13. repec:ces:ifodre:v:12:y:2005:i:03:p:s.34-37 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Gebhard Flaig & Horst Rottmann, 2007. "Labour Market Institutions and the Employment Intensity of Output Growth. An International Comparison," CESifo Working Paper Series 2175, CESifo Group Munich.
    15. Guenter Lang, 2002. "Innovative Slowdown, Productivity Reversal? - Estimating the Impact of R&D on Technological Change," Discussion Paper Series 218, Universitaet Augsburg, Institute for Economics.
    16. Jung, Sven, 2012. "Employment adjustment in German firms," Discussion Papers 80, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    17. PERUGINI, Cristiano, 2009. "Employment Intensity Of Growth In Italy. A Note Using Regional Data," Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 9(1).
    18. Rim Mouelhi & Monia Ghazali, 2014. "The Employment Intensity of Output Growth in Tunisia and Its Determinants," Working Papers 857, Economic Research Forum, revised Nov 2014.
    19. Beate Schirwitz, 2005. "Wirtschaftswachstum und Beschäftigung : die Beschäftigungsschwelle (Wachstum und Beschäftigung)," ifo Dresden berichtet, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 12(03), pages 34-37, 06.
    20. Arnd Kölling, 2014. "Labor Demand and Unequal Payment: Does Wage Inequality matter? Analyzing the Influence of Intra-firm Wage Dispersion on Labor Demand with German Employer-Employee Data," Working Paper Series in Economics 326, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
    21. Cristiano Perugini & Marcello Signorelli, 2007. "Labour Market Performance Differentials and Dynamics in EU-15 Countries and Regions," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 4(2), pages 209-262, September.
    22. Döpke, Jörg, 2001. "The "Employment Intensity" of Growth in Europe," Kiel Working Papers 1021, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).

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