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The Effects of Government-Sponsored Venture Capital: International Evidence

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  • James A. Brander
  • Qianqian Du
  • Thomas F. Hellmann

Abstract

This paper examines the impact of government-sponsored venture capitalists (GVCs) on the success of enterprises. Using international enterprise-level data, we identify a surprising non-monotonicity in the effect of GVC on the likelihood of exit via initial public offerings (IPOs) or third party acquisitions. Enterprises that receive funding from both private venture capitalists (PVCs) and GVCs outperform benchmark enterprises financed purely by private venture capitalists if only a moderate fraction of funding comes from GVCs. However, enterprises underperform if a large fraction of funding comes from GVCs. Instrumental variable regressions suggest that endogeneity in the form of unobservable selection effects cannot account for these effects of GVC financing. The underperformance result appears to be largely driven by investments made in times when private venture capital is abundant. The outperformance result applies only to venture capital firms that are supported but not owned outright by governments.

Suggested Citation

  • James A. Brander & Qianqian Du & Thomas F. Hellmann, 2010. "The Effects of Government-Sponsored Venture Capital: International Evidence," NBER Working Papers 16521, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:16521
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    1. Keuschnigg, Christian & Nielsen, Soren Bo, 2003. "Tax policy, venture capital, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 175-203, January.
    2. Da Rin, Marco & Nicodano, Giovanna & Sembenelli, Alessandro, 2006. "Public policy and the creation of active venture capital markets," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(8-9), pages 1699-1723, September.
    3. Keuschnigg, Christian & Nielsen, Soren Bo, 2004. "Start-ups, venture capitalists, and the capital gains tax," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(5), pages 1011-1042, April.
    4. Bottazzi, Laura & Da Rin, Marco & Hellmann, Thomas, 2008. "Who are the active investors?: Evidence from venture capital," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(3), pages 488-512, September.
    5. Thomas J. Chemmanur & Karthik Krishnan & Debarshi K. Nandy, 2011. "How Does Venture Capital Financing Improve Efficiency in Private Firms? A Look Beneath the Surface," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(12), pages 4037-4090.
    6. Thomas Hellmann & Laura Lindsey & Manju Puri, 2008. "Building Relationships Early: Banks in Venture Capital," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(2), pages 513-541, April.
    7. Josh Lerner & Antoinette Schoar, 2010. "International Differences in Entrepreneurship," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number lern08-2.
    8. Masulis, Ronald W. & Nahata, Rajarishi, 2009. "Financial contracting with strategic investors: Evidence from corporate venture capital backed IPOs," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 599-631, October.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Alperovych, Yan & Hübner, Georges & Lobet, Fabrice, 2015. "How does governmental versus private venture capital backing affect a firm's efficiency? Evidence from Belgium," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 508-525.
    2. Fabio Bertoni & Diego D’Adda & Luca Grilli, 2016. "Cherry-picking or frog-kissing? A theoretical analysis of how investors select entrepreneurial ventures in thin venture capital markets," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(3), pages 391-405, March.
    3. repec:kap:sbusec:v:50:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11187-016-9831-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Achleitner, A.-K. & Bock, Carolin & Watzinger, Martin, 2011. "The Capital Gains Tax: A Curse but also a Blessing for Venture Capital Investment," Publications of Darmstadt Technical University, Institute for Business Studies (BWL) 77259, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute for Business Studies (BWL).
    5. Engberg, Erik & Halvarsson, Daniel & Tingvall, Patrik, 2017. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Private- and Government Sponsored Venture Capital," Ratio Working Papers 288, The Ratio Institute.
    6. Kraemer-Eis, Helmut & Signore, Simone & Prencipe, Dario, 2016. "The European venture capital landscape: an EIF perspective. Volume I: The impact of EIF on the VC ecosystem," EIF Working Paper Series 2016/34, European Investment Fund (EIF).
    7. repec:kap:jtecht:v:42:y:2017:i:5:d:10.1007_s10961-016-9476-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Thorsten Beck & Samuel Munzele Maimbo & Issa Faye & Thouraya Triki, 2011. "Financing Africa : Through the Crisis and Beyond," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2355, April.
    9. repec:eee:pacfin:v:43:y:2017:i:c:p:107-123 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Adongo, Jonathan O., 2017. "Legal jurisdiction, director liability law, and venture capitalists’ equity stakes in Africa," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 78-93.
    11. Katarzyna Szkuta & Blagoy Stamenov & Anna Ianshyna, 2017. "Improving access to finance for young innovative enterprises with growth potential: evidence of impact on firms' outputs: Part 1. Equity instruments: lessons learned from policy evaluations," JRC Working Papers JRC109163, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    12. repec:kap:sbusec:v:50:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11187-017-9877-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Colombo, Massimo G. & D’Adda, Diego & Pirelli, Lorenzo H., 2016. "The participation of new technology-based firms in EU-funded R&D partnerships: The role of venture capital," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 361-375.
    14. repec:ksa:szemle:1696 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Guerini, Massimiliano & Quas, Anita, 2016. "Governmental venture capital in Europe: Screening and certification," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 175-195.
    16. repec:eee:chieco:v:44:y:2017:i:c:p:48-66 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Matteo Bugamelli & Luigi Cannari & Francesca Lotti & Silvia Magri, 2012. "The innovation gap of Italy�s production system: roots and possible solutions," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 121, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    18. Anna Kovner & Josh Lerner, 2015. "Doing Well by Doing Good? Community Development Venture Capital," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 643-663, September.
    19. Anita Lovas & János Pereczes & Viktória Rába, 2015. "Incentives and restrictions in venture capital contracts," Financial and Economic Review, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary), vol. 14(3), pages 106-121.
    20. repec:eee:respol:v:47:y:2018:i:1:p:49-60 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. repec:cbh:journl:v:14:y:2015:i:3:p:106-121 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • H44 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets
    • H81 - Public Economics - - Miscellaneous Issues - - - Governmental Loans; Loan Guarantees; Credits; Grants; Bailouts
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy

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