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Needle Sharing and HIV Transmission: A Model with Markets and Purposive Behavior

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Listed:
  • Ajay Mahal
  • Brendan O'Flaherty
  • David E. Bloom

Abstract

Without well designed empirical studies, mathematical models are an important way to use data on needle infection for inferences about human infection. We develop a model with explicit behavioral foundations to explore an array of policy interventions related to HIV transmission among IDU. In our model, needle exchanges affect the spread of HIV in three ways: more HIV-negative IDUs use new needles instead of old ones; needles are retired after fewer uses; and the proportion of HIV-positive IDUs among users of both old and new needles rises owing to sorting effects. The first and second effects reduce the long-run incidence of HIV, while the third effect works in the opposite direction. We compare the results of our model with those of Kaplan and O'Keefe (1993) that is the foundation of many later models of HIV transmission among IDU.

Suggested Citation

  • Ajay Mahal & Brendan O'Flaherty & David E. Bloom, 2009. "Needle Sharing and HIV Transmission: A Model with Markets and Purposive Behavior," NBER Working Papers 14823, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14823
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Frank J. Chaloupka & Michael Grossman & John A. Tauras, 1999. "The Demand for Cocaine and Marijuana by Youth," NBER Chapters,in: The Economic Analysis of Substance Use and Abuse: An Integration of Econometrics and Behavioral Economic Research, pages 133-156 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Grossman, Michael & Chaloupka, Frank J., 1998. "The demand for cocaine by young adults: a rational addiction approach," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 427-474, August.
    3. Thomas J. Kniesner & W. Kip Viscusi & Christopher Woock & James P. Ziliak, 2005. "How Unobservable Productivity Biases the Value of a Statistical Life," NBER Working Papers 11659, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Bretteville-Jensen, A. L., 1999. "Addiction and discounting1," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 393-407, August.
    5. Jeff DeSimone, 2002. "Illegal Drug Use and Employment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(4), pages 952-977, October.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law

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