Unanticipated or Actual Changes in Aggregate Demand Variables: A Cross-Country Analysis
This paper generalizes the Barro approach to explaining real income growth as the solution of a Lucas aggregate supply function and an aggregate demand function with nominal money, real government spending, and real exports as arguments. The resulting real income equation involves lagged transitory income and short distributed lags on the shocks (innovations) in the three aggregate demand variables. This equation was estimated using quarterly data from 1957 through 1976 for the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the Netherlands. While the data are not inconsistent with the model's restrictions, it is found that with the exception of the United States, unanticipated and actual changes in aggregate demand variables are about equally poor as explanations of real income growth. Although these results can be rationalized by greater measurement errors in the foreign data, they are sufficiently surprising to warrant further investigation and cautious application of at least Barro's approach to the Lucas aggregate supply function.
|Date of creation:||Dec 1980|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as Proceedings of Fourth West Coast Academic/Federal Reserve Economic Research Seminar (Fall 1980), Supplement.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Feige, Edgar L & Pearce, Douglas K, 1976. "Economically Rational Expectations: Are Innovations in the Rate of Inflation Independent of Innovations in Measures of Monetary and Fiscal Policy?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(3), pages 499-522, June.
- Boschen, John F. & Grossman, Herschel I., 1982.
"Tests of equilibrium macroeconomics using contemporaneous monetary data,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 309-333.
- John F. Boschen & Herschel I. Grossman, 1981. "Tests of Equilibrium Macroeconomics Using Contemporaneous Monetary Data," NBER Working Papers 0558, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sargent, Thomas J, 1976.
"The Observational Equivalence of Natural and Unnatural Rate Theories of Macroeconomics,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(3), pages 631-40, June.
- Thomas J. Sargent, 1975. "The observational equivalence of natural and unnatural rate theories of macroeconomics," Working Papers 48, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1973. "Some International Evidence on Output-Inflation Tradeoffs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(3), pages 326-34, June.
- Leiderman, Leonardo, 1980. "Macroeconometric testing of the rational expectations and structural neutrality hypotheses for the United States," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 69-82, January.
- Robert J. Barro, 1976.
"Unanticipated Money Growth and Unemployment in the United States,"
234, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Barro, Robert J, 1977. "Unanticipated Money Growth and Unemployment in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 101-15, March.
- Garber, Steven & Klepper, Steven, 1980. "Extending the Classical Normal Errors-in-Variables Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(6), pages 1541-46, September.
- Charles Pigott, 1978. "Rational expectations and counter-cyclical monetary policy: the Japanese experience," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Sum, pages 6-22.
- McCallum, Bennett T, 1978. "Price Level Adjustments and the Rational Expectations Approach to Macroeconomic Stabilization Policy," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 10(4), pages 418-36, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:0589. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.