IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Role of Community Entrepreneurship and Institutional Completeness in the Rising of the Chinese Regional Enclave in Lombardy


  • Andrea GANZAROLI
  • Ivan DE NONI


In this paper the linkage between ethnic entrepreneurship and community building is explored. This is done in the specific setting of Chinese enclave in Lombardy. The research provides two major contributions. First, entrepreneurship is highlighted as essential glue in the development of an ethnic community. Migrant entrepreneurs leverage on communitarian relations to get access to essential resources and assets for their businesses. However, in so doing, they further contribute to community’s expansion. Second, the close tight between Chinese community-ship and entrepreneurship supports the rising of a regional Chinese enclave specializing on the manufacturing and distribution of fashion goods.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrea GANZAROLI & Ivan DE NONI, 2014. "The Role of Community Entrepreneurship and Institutional Completeness in the Rising of the Chinese Regional Enclave in Lombardy," Departmental Working Papers 2014-16, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
  • Handle: RePEc:mil:wpdepa:2014-16

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Andrea Ganzaroli & Luigi Orsi & Ivan De Noni, 2013. "The evolution of the social understanding of ethnic entrepreneurship: results from a bibliometric analysis of the literature," International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 20(4), pages 383-401.
    2. Peter Nijkamp, 2003. "Entrepreneurship in a Modern Network Economy," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(4), pages 395-405.
    3. Sam Youl Lee & Richard Florida & Zoltan Acs, 2004. "Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Regional Analysis of New Firm Formation," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 879-891.
    4. Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano & Giovanni Peri, 2021. "Cities and cultures," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Firms and Workers in a Globalized World Larger Markets, Tougher Competition, chapter 6, pages 153-186, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Ceren Ozgen & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2012. "Immigration and innovation in European regions," Chapters, in: Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot & Mediha Sahin (ed.), Migration Impact Assessment, chapter 8, pages 261-298, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Levent, T.B. & Masurel, E. & Nijkamp, P., 2002. "Diversity in entrepreneurship: ethnic and female roles in irban economic life," Serie Research Memoranda 0032, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    7. Ceren Ozgen & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2013. "The impact of cultural diversity on firm innovation: evidence from Dutch micro-data," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-24, December.
    8. Alejandro Portes & Min Zhou, 2012. "Transnationalism and Development: Mexican and Chinese Immigrant Organizations in the United States," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 38(2), pages 191-220, June.
    9. Ivan De Noni & Andrea Ganzaroli & Luigi Orsi & Luciano Pilotti, 2013. "Immigrant entrepreneurship in the Milan metropolitan area: results from an empirical analysis," International Journal of Economic Policy in Emerging Economies, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 6(2), pages 168-188.
    10. Enno Masurel & Peter Nijkamp & Murat Tastan & Gabriella Vindigni, 2002. "Motivations and Performance Conditions for Ethnic Entrepreneurship," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(2), pages 238-260.
    11. Annalee Saxenian, 2002. "Transnational Communities and the Evolution of Global Production Networks: The Cases of Taiwan, China and India," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 183-202.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Nijkamp, P. & Stough, R. & Sahin, M., 2009. "Impact of social and human capital on business performance of migrant entrepreneurs - a comparative dutch-us study," Serie Research Memoranda 0017, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    2. Peter Nijkamp & Mediha Sahin & Tüzin Baycan-Levent, 2009. "Migrant Entrepreneurship and New Urban Economic Opportunities," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-025/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    3. Peter Nijkamp & Mediha Sahin & Tüzin Baycan‐Levent, 2010. "Migrant Entrepreneurship And New Urban Economic Opportunities: Identification Of Critical Success Factors By Means Of Qualitative Pattern Recognition Analysis," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 101(4), pages 371-391, September.
    4. Dirk Dohse & Robert Gold, 2014. "Cultural Diversity and Economic Policy. WWWforEurope Working Paper No. 64," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 47494, November.
    5. Peter Nijkamp, 2009. "Entrepreneurship, Development, and the Spatial Context: Retrospect and Prospect," WIDER Working Paper Series RP2009-08, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Ceren Ozgen, 2021. "The economics of diversity: Innovation, productivity and the labour market," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 1168-1216, September.
    7. Arrighetti, Alessandro & Gnarini, Daniela & Lasagni, Andrea & Semenza, Renata, 2021. "From Immigrant Entrepreneurship to Plurinational Firms: Evidence from Italy," EconStor Preprints 248545, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    8. Mediha Sahin & Peter Nijkamp & Roger Stough, 2011. "Impact of urban conditions on firm performance of migrant entrepreneurs: a comparative Dutch–US study," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 46(3), pages 661-689, June.
    9. Ozgen, Ceren, 2021. "The Economics of Diversity: Innovation, Productivity, and the Labour Market," IZA Discussion Papers 14344, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Nijkamp, Peter & Poot, Jacques, 2015. "Cultural Diversity: A Matter of Measurement," IZA Discussion Papers 8782, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    11. Stephan Brunow & Luise Pestel & Mark Partridge, 2019. "Exports of firms and diversity: an empirical assessment for Germany," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 46(1), pages 151-175, February.
    12. Sari Pekkala Kerr & William R. Kerr, 2021. "Whose Job Is It Anyway? Coethnic Hiring in New US Ventures," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 86-127.
    13. Sjoerd Beugelsdijk, 2010. "Entrepreneurial Culture, Regional Innovativeness and Economic Growth," Springer Books, in: Andreas Freytag & Roy Thurik (ed.), Entrepreneurship and Culture, chapter 0, pages 129-154, Springer.
    14. Wedemeier, Jan, 2009. "Creative cities and the concept of diversity," HWWI Research Papers 1-20, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
    15. Stephan Brunow & Hanna Brenzel, 2012. "The effect of a culturally diverse labour supply on regional income in the EU," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 461-485, November.
    16. Mediha Sahin & Alina Todiras & Peter Nijkamp & Enno Masurel, 2012. "Economic performance of migrant entrepreneurs in the high-tech sector: design and application of the GALAXY model," Chapters, in: Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot & Mediha Sahin (ed.), Migration Impact Assessment, chapter 7, pages 227-260, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    17. Alessandra Venturini & Claudio Fassio & Sona Kalantaryan, 2015. "Human Resources and Innovation: Total Factor Productivity and Foreign Human Capital," Discussion Papers 29, Central European Labour Studies Institute (CELSI).
    18. Dale-Olsen, Harald & Finseraas, Henning, 2020. "Linguistic diversity and workplace productivity," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    19. Dieu Ne Dort Talla Fokam & Paul Ningaye & Celestin Chameni Nembua, 2020. "Ethnic Diversity Management and Poverty in Developing Countries," Review of Applied Socio-Economic Research, Pro Global Science Association, vol. 19(1), pages 47-60, June.
    20. Kourtit Karima & Nijkamp Peter & Suzuki Soushi, 2016. "New Urban Economic Agents: A Comparative Analysis of High-Performance New Entrepreneurs," Quaestiones Geographicae, Sciendo, vol. 35(4), pages 5-22, December.

    More about this item


    Ethnic Enclave; Regional Development; Migrant Entrepreneurship; Institutional Completeness; Chinese Community;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mil:wpdepa:2014-16. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: DEMM Working Papers The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask DEMM Working Papers to update the entry or send us the correct address (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.