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Diversity in Entrepreneurship: Ethnic and Female Roles in Urban Economic Life


  • Tuzin Baycan Levent

    (Department of Spatial Economics, Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands and Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey)

  • Enno Masurel

    (Department of Business Administration, Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands)

  • Peter Nijkamp

    (Department of Spatial Economics, Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands)


The aim of this paper is to investigate the phenomenon of ethnic female entrepreneurship in urban economic life. The focus of the research is on the attitude and behaviour of Turkish female entrepreneurs in Amsterdam. The main fascinating question is: Are ethnic female entrepreneurs special ethnic entrepreneurs or special female entrepreneurs? This paper provides an answer to this question on the basis of field surveys. The results of the case study research on Turkish female entrepreneurs in Amsterdam show that the “ethnic female profile” is a “special female profile” and that Turkish female entrepreneurs are “special female entrepreneurs”, particularly in terms of personal and business characteristics, driving forces and motivations. They appear to combine their ethnic opportunities with their personal characteristics (and other opportunities) in the urban market, and to have a successful performance. This is also caused by the fact that they have become service providers not only for their own ethnic groups, but also for other groups in the city.Keywords: Ethnic female entrepreneurship, diversity in entrepreneurship, ethnic female profile, Turkish female entrepreneurs

Suggested Citation

  • Tuzin Baycan Levent & Enno Masurel & Peter Nijkamp, 2003. "Diversity in Entrepreneurship: Ethnic and Female Roles in Urban Economic Life," Working Papers 2003.15, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  • Handle: RePEc:fem:femwpa:2003.15

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    JEL classification:

    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups

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