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The Persistence of the Gender Earnings Gap: Cohort Trends and the Role of Education in Twelve Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Eyal Bar-Haim
  • Louis Chauvel
  • Janet Gornick
  • Anne Hartung

Abstract

Studying twelve countries over 30 years, we examine whether women’s educational expansion has translated into a closing gender earnings gap. As educational attainment is cohort-dependent, an Age-Period-Cohort analysis is most appropriate in our view. Using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) data, we show that while in terms of attainment of tertiary education women have caught up and often even outperform men, substantial gender differences in earnings persist in all countries. These results are consistent with the composition of the top earnings decile. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition methods, we demonstrate that the role of education in explaining the gender earnings gap has been limited and even decreased over cohorts. Contrary, employment status as well as occupation explain a more substantial part in all countries. We conclude that earnings differences at levels far from gender equality likely also persist in the future, even if the “rise of women” in terms of education continues.

Suggested Citation

  • Eyal Bar-Haim & Louis Chauvel & Janet Gornick & Anne Hartung, 2018. "The Persistence of the Gender Earnings Gap: Cohort Trends and the Role of Education in Twelve Countries," LIS Working papers 737, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
  • Handle: RePEc:lis:liswps:737
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Louis Chauvel, 2016. "The Intensity and Shape of Inequality: The ABG Method of Distributional Analysis," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 62(1), pages 52-68, March.
    2. Louis Chauvel & Anja K Leist & Valentina Ponomarenko, 2016. "Testing Persistence of Cohort Effects in the Epidemiology of Suicide: an Age-Period-Cohort Hysteresis Model," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 11(7), pages 1-20, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. De Paola, Maria & Lombardo, Rosetta & Pupo, Valeria & Scoppa, Vincenzo, 2021. "Do Women Shy Away from Public Speaking? A Field Experiment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C).
    2. Héctor Alberto Botello-Peñaloza, 2021. "Wage Inequality of Venezuelan Migrants in Ecuador," The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Springer;The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), vol. 64(1), pages 115-132, March.
    3. Eyal Bar-Haim & Carmel Blank, 2019. "Second-Chance Alternatives and Maintained Inequality in Access to Higher Education in Israel," Social Inclusion, Cogitatio Press, vol. 7(1), pages 28-37.
    4. Tierney, Warren & Hardy, Jay H. & Ebersole, Charles R. & Leavitt, Keith & Viganola, Domenico & Clemente, Elena Giulia & Gordon, Michael & Dreber, Anna & Johannesson, Magnus & Pfeiffer, Thomas & Uhlman, 2020. "Creative destruction in science," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 161(C), pages 291-309.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    -gender gap; education; earnings; age-period-cohort analysis; Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination
    • I26 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Returns to Education
    • N30 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - General, International, or Comparative

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