IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/lev/wrkpap/wp_838.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Unpaid Work and the Economy: Linkages and Their Implications

Author

Listed:
  • Indira Hirway

Abstract

Unpaid work, which falls outside of the national income accounts but within the general production boundary, is viewed as either "care" or as "work" by experts. This work is almost always unequally distributed between men and women, and if one includes both paid and unpaid work, women carry much more of the burden of work than men. This unequal distribution of work is unjust, and it implies a violation of the basic human rights of women. The grounds on which it is excluded from the boundary of national income accounts do not seem to be logical or valid. This paper argues that the exclusion reflects the dominance of patriarchal values and brings male bias into macroeconomics. This paper shows that there are multiple linkages between unpaid work and the conventional macroeconomy, and this makes it necessary to expand the boundary of conventional macroeconomics so as to incorporate unpaid work. The paper presents the two approaches: the valuation of unpaid work into satellite accounts, and the adoption of the triple "R" approach of recognition, reduction, and reorganization of unpaid work, recommended by experts. However, there is a need to go beyond these approaches to integrate unpaid work into macroeconomics and macroeconomic policies. Though some empirical work has been done in terms of integrating unpaid work into macro policies (for example, understanding the impacts of macroeconomic policy on paid and unpaid work), some sound theoretical work is needed on the dynamics of the linkages between paid and unpaid work, and how these dynamics change over time and space. The paper concludes that the time has come to recognize that unless unpaid work is included in macroeconomic analyses, they will remain partial and wrong. The time has also come to incorporate unpaid work into labor market analyses, and in the design of realistic labor and employment policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Indira Hirway, 2015. "Unpaid Work and the Economy: Linkages and Their Implications," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_838, Levy Economics Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:lev:wrkpap:wp_838
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.levyinstitute.org/pubs/wp_838.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Duncan Ironmonger & Faye Soupourmas, 2009. "Estimating household production outputs with time use episode data," electronic International Journal of Time Use Research, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)) and The International Association for Time Use Research (IATUR), vol. 6(2), pages 240-268, September.
    2. Rania Antonopoulos, 2008. "The Unpaid Care Work–Paid Work Connection," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_541, Levy Economics Institute.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Manik Kumar & Nripendra Kishore Mishra, 2019. "Determinants of Home Based Work in Non-Agriculture Sector of India," The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Springer;The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), vol. 62(3), pages 451-472, September.
    2. Mónica Domínguez-Serrano & Lucía Moral Espín, 2018. "From Relevant Capabilities to Relevant Indicators: Defining an Indicator System for Children’s Well-Being in Spain," Child Indicators Research, Springer;The International Society of Child Indicators (ISCI), vol. 11(1), pages 1-25, February.
    3. Gerry Rodgers, 2020. "Labour and Employment in India: A 50-Year Perspective," The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Springer;The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), vol. 63(1), pages 1-19, March.
    4. Rajni Palriwala, 2019. "Framing Care: Gender, Labour and Governmentalities," Indian Journal of Gender Studies, Centre for Women's Development Studies, vol. 26(3), pages 237-262, October.
    5. Athary Janiso & Prakash Kumar Shukla & Bheemeshwar Reddy A, 2021. "What Explains Gender Gap in Unpaid Household and Care Work in India?," Papers 2106.15376, arXiv.org, revised Jul 2021.
    6. Pushpendra Singh & Falguni Pattanaik, 2020. "Unfolding unpaid domestic work in India: women’s constraints, choices, and career," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 6(1), pages 1-13, December.
    7. Amaresh Dubey & Wendy Olsen & Kunal Sen, 2017. "The Decline in the Labour Force Participation of Rural Women in India: Taking a Long-Run View," The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Springer;The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), vol. 60(4), pages 589-612, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Pushpendra Singh & Falguni Pattanaik, 2020. "Unfolding unpaid domestic work in India: women’s constraints, choices, and career," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 6(1), pages 1-13, December.
    2. Stuart, Sheila, 2014. "Situation of unpaid work and gender in the Caribbean: The measurement of unpaid work through time-use studies," Studies and Perspectives – ECLAC Subregional Headquarters for The Caribbean 34, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    3. repec:rdg:wpaper:em-dp2010-03 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Michael Bittman & Duncan Ironmonger, 2011. "Valuing Time: A Conference Overview," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 101(2), pages 173-183, April.
    5. A. Amarender Reddy & Surabhi Mittal & Namrata Singha Roy & Sanghamitra Kanjilal-Bhaduri, 2021. "Time Allocation between Paid and Unpaid Work among Men and Women: An Empirical Study of Indian Villages," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(5), pages 1-17, March.
    6. Burca Kizilirmak & Emel Memis, 2019. "The Unequal Burden of Income Poverty on Time Use in South Africa," World Journal of Applied Economics, WERI-World Economic Research Institute, vol. 5(2), pages 31-51, December.
    7. Selim Raihan & Sayema Haque Bidisha & Israt Jahan, 2017. "Unpacking unpaid labour in Bangladesh," The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Springer;The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), vol. 60(4), pages 571-587, December.
    8. Marina Della Giusta & Nigar Hashimzade & Sarah Jewell, 2011. "Why Care? Social Norms, Relative Income and the Supply of Unpaid Care," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2011-03, Department of Economics, University of Reading.
    9. Fatima Iqbal & Muhammad Bilal Ahmad & Rai Imtiaz Hussain & Sohail Aslam & Hafiz Fawad Ali, 2020. "Time Poverty among Working Females in Pakistan: A Qualitative Study," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 10(4), pages 170-175.
    10. Marina Della Giusta & Zella King, 2010. "Time Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2010-03, Department of Economics, University of Reading.
    11. Enrique Alaniz & T. H. Gindling & Catherine Mata & Diego Rojas, 2021. "Heterogeneous informality in Costa Rica and Nicaragua," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2021-50, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    12. Miroslava Knapková & Mariana Považanová, 2021. "(Un)Sustainability of the Time Devoted to Selected Housework—Evidence from Slovakia," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(4), pages 1-19, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Unpaid Work; System of National Accounts; Time-Use Survey; Gender Equality;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • E01 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth; Environmental Accounts
    • I3 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
    • J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
    • J08 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics Policies
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lev:wrkpap:wp_838. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.levyinstitute.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Elizabeth Dunn (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.levyinstitute.org .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.