Fiscal Policy, Unemployment Insurance, and Financial Crises in a Model of Growth and Distribution
Recently, some have wondered whether a fiscal stimulus plan could reduce the government's budget deficit. Many also worry that fiscal austerity plans will only bring higher deficits. Issues of this kind involve endogenous changes in tax revenues that occur when output, real wages, and other variables are affected by changes in policy. Few would disagree that various paradoxes of austerity or stimulus might be relevant, but such issues can be clarified a great deal with the help of a complete heterodox model. In light of recent world events, this paper seeks to improve our understanding of the dynamics of fiscal policy and financial crises within the context of two-dimensional (2D) and five-dimensional heterodox models. The nonlinear version of the 2D model incorporates curvilinear functions for investment and consumption out of unearned income. To bring in fiscal policy, I make use of a rule with either (1) dual targets of capacity utilization and public production, or (2) a balanced-budget target. Next, I add discrete jumps and policy-regime switches to the model in order to tell a story of a financial crisis followed by a move to fiscal austerity. Then, I return to the earlier model and add three more variables and equations: (1) I model the size of the private- and public-sector labor forces using a constant growth rate and account for their social reproduction by introducing an unemployment-insurance scheme; and (2) I make the markup endogenous, allowing its rate of change to depend, in a possibly nonlinear way, on capacity utilization, the real wage relative to a fixed norm, the employment rate, profitability, and the business sector’s desired capital-stock growth rate. In the conclusion, I comment on the implications of my results for various policy issues.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Marc Lavoie & Gabriel Rodriguez & Mario Seccareccia, 2004. "Similitudes and Discrepancies in Post-Keynesian and Marxist Theories of Investment: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 127-149.
- J. M. Keynes, 1937. "The General Theory of Employment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(2), pages 209-223.
- Lavoie, Marc, 1995.
"The Kaleckian Model of Growth and Distribution and Its Neo-Ricardian and Neo-Marxian Critiques,"
Cambridge Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 19(6), pages 789-818, December.
- Lavoie, M., 1992. "The Kaleckian Model of Growth and Distribution and its Neo-Ricardian and Neo-Marxian Critiques," Working Papers 9201e, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.
- Galbraith, James K., 2012. "Inequality and Instability: A Study of the World Economy Just Before the Great Crisis," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199855650.
- Thomas Palley, 1998. "Macroeconomics with Conflict and Income Distribution," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(3), pages 329-342.
- Dutt, Amitava Krishna, 1984. "Stagnation, Income Distribution and Monopoly Power," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(1), pages 25-40, March.
- Engelbert Stockhammer & Özlem Onaran & Stefan Ederer, 2009. "Functional income distribution and aggregate demand in the Euro area," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(1), pages 139-159, January.
- Stockhammer, Engelbert & Onaran, Özlem & Ederer, Stefan, 2007. "Functional income distribution and aggregate demand in the Euro-area," Department of Economics Working Paper Series 346, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business.
- Engelbert Stockhammer & Özlem Onaran & Stefan Ederer, 2007. "Functional income distribution and aggregate demand in the Euro-area," Department of Economics Working Papers wuwp102, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Department of Economics.
- Skott,Peter, 2008. "Conflict and Effective Demand in Economic Growth," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521066310, August.
- Skott,Peter, 1989. "Conflict and Effective Demand in Economic Growth," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521365963, September.
- J. Bradford DeLong & Lawrence H. Summers, 2012. "Fiscal Policy in a Depressed Economy," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 44(1 (Spring), pages 233-297.
- Claudio H. Dos Santos & Gennaro Zezza, 2008. "A Simplified, 'Benchmark', Stock-Flow Consistent Post-Keynesian Growth Model," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(3), pages 441-478, 07.
- Eckhard Hein & Lena Vogel, 2008. "Distribution and growth reconsidered: empirical results for six OECD countries," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 32(3), pages 479-511, May.
- Halevi, J. & Kriesler, P., 1999. "On the Limitations of Fiscal Policy: a Radical Kalechian View," Papers 99/14, New South Wales - School of Economics.
- You, Jong-Il & Dutt, Amitava Krishna, 1996. "Government Debt, Income Distribution and Growth," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(3), pages 335-351, May.
- Hyman P. Minsky, 1992. "The Financial Instability Hypothesis," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_74, Levy Economics Institute.
- Pavlina R. Tcherneva, 2007. "Chartalism and the Tax-Driven Approach to Money," Chapters,in: A Handbook of Alternative Monetary Economics, chapter 5 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Michalis Nikiforos & Duncan K. Foley, 2012. "Distribution And Capacity Utilization: Conceptual Issues And Empirical Evidence," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(1), pages 200-229, 02.
- Malcolm Sawyer, 1995. "Unemployment, Imperfect Competition and Macroeconomics," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 395.
- Eckhard Hein & Marc Lavoie & Till van Treeck, 2012. "Harrodian Instability And The ‘Normal Rate’ Of Capacity Utilization In Kaleckian Models Of Distribution And Growth—A Survey," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(1), pages 139-169, 02.
- J. Bradford DeLong & Lawrence H. Summers, 2012. "Fiscal Policy in a Depressed Economy," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 43(1 (Spring), pages 233-297.
- Daniele Tavani & Peter Flaschel & Lance Taylor, 2011. "Estimated non-linearities and multiple equilibria in a model of distributive-demand cycles," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(5), pages 519-538, October. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lev:wrkpap:wp_723. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marie-Celeste Edwards)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.