Wages and wage elasticities for wine and table grapes in South Africa
A survey of 190 wine and table grape farmers in the Western Cape puts the average wage for farm labour at R928 per month in 2003 and R1123 per month in 2004. Output per worker has doubled since 1983. On farms with grape harvesters, labour is 30 per cent more productive (48 ton/worker) than on farms where wine grapes are picked by hand (37 ton/worker). At 9.75 tons per worker, table grapes are four times as labour-intensive as wine grapes. Resident men dominate the workforce on wine farms, while the resident female workforce is 20 per cent larger than the resident male workforce on table grape farms. Seasonal workers contribute a third of labour in table grapes, and brokers less than ten per cent in either case. In a single-equation short-run Hicksian demand function, wage, output, capital levels and mechanisation intensities are highly significant determinants of employment. Higher wages decrease employment and larger output increases employment. More mechanisation, measured by the number of tractors used to produce a ton of fruit, raises labour intensity too. Grape harvesters could not be shown to reduce jobs. The ten per cent rise in the minimum wage planned for March 2005 could reduce employment by 3.3 per cent in the wine industry and 5.9 per cent in the table grape industry, but it is more likely that the wage increase will be offset against fewer benefits. The average expected impact is about the same as for all agriculture and manufacturing as a whole.
|Date of creation:||2004|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Private BagX3, Rondebosch, 7701, Cape Town|
Phone: +27 21 650 5696
Fax: +27 21 650 5697
Web page: http://www.saldru.uct.ac.za/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Balcombe, Kelvin George & Bailey, Alastair & Morrison, Jamie & Rapsomanikis, George & Thirtle, Colin G., 2000. "Stochastic biases in technical change in South African agriculture," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 39(4), December.
- Murray Leibbrandt & Laura Poswell & Pranushka Naidoo & Matthew Welch & Ingrid Woolard, 2005.
"Measuring Recent Changes in South African Inequality and Poverty using 1996 and 2001 Census Data,"
05094, University of Cape Town, Development Policy Research Unit.
- Murray Leibbrandt & Laura Poswell & Pranushka & Matthew Welch & Ingrid Woolard, 2004. "Measuring recent changes in South African inequality and poverty using 1996 and 2001 census data," SALDRU/CSSR Working Papers 084, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
- Martine Visser & Frikkie Booysen, 2004. "Determinants of the choice of health care facility utilised by individuals in HIV/AIDS-affected households in the Free State province of South Africa," SALDRU/CSSR Working Papers 087, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
- A. J. Errington & L. Harrison Mayfield & Y. Khatri & R. Townsend, 1997. "Estimating the price elasticity of demand for family and hired farm labour in England and Wales," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(12), pages 1561-1574.
- Richard Dickens & Stephen Machin & Alan Manning & David Metcalf & Jonathan Wadsworth & S Woodland, 1994.
"The Effect of Minimum Wages on UK Agriculture,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0204, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Christopher J. O'Donnell & C. Richard Shumway & V. Eldon Ball, 1999. "Input Demands and Inefficiency in U.S. Agriculture," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(4), pages 865-880.
- Newman, R.A. & Ortmann, Gerald F. & Lyne, Michael C., 1997. "Farm Labour Remuneration, Labour Legislation And Commercial Farmers' Perceptions In Kwazulu-Natal," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 36(1), March.
- Stephan Klasen & Ingrid Woolard, 1999. "Levels, trends and consistency of employment and unemployment figures in South Africa," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 3-35.
- JW Fedderke & Martine Mariotti, 2002. "Changing Labour Market Conditions In South Africa," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 70(5), pages 830-864, 06.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ldr:cssrwp:090. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alison Siljeur)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.