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Cash breeds Success: The Role of Financing Constraints in Patent Races

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  • Enrique Schroth
  • Dezsö Szalay

Abstract

This paper studies the impact of cash constraints on equilibrium winning probabilities in a patent race between an incumbent and an entrant. We develop a model where cash-constrained firms finance their R&D expenditures with an investor who cannot verify their effort. In equilibrium, the incumbent faces better prospects of winning the race the less cash-constrained he is and the more cash-constrained the entrant is. We use NBER evidence from pharmaceutical patents awarded between 1975 and 1999 in the US, patent citations, and COMPUSTAT and fit probabilistic regressions of the predicted equilibrium winning probabilities on measures of the incumbent's and potential entrants' financial wealth. The empirical findings support our theoretical predictions.

Suggested Citation

  • Enrique Schroth & Dezsö Szalay, 2005. "Cash breeds Success: The Role of Financing Constraints in Patent Races," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'économie 05.11, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, Département d’économie.
  • Handle: RePEc:lau:crdeep:05.11
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    Cited by:

    1. Bakker, Gerben, 2013. "Money for nothing: How firms have financed R&D-projects since the Industrial Revolution," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(10), pages 1793-1814.
    2. Frédérique Savignac, 2006. "The impact of financial constraints on innovation: evidence from french manufacturing firms," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques v06042, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
    3. Ke Zhang & Jenny Jing Wang & Yanqi Sun & Sarowar Hossain, 2021. "Financial slack, institutional shareholding and enterprise innovation investment: evidence from China," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 61(2), pages 3235-3259, June.
    4. Ahrends, Meike & Drobetz, Wolfgang & Puhan, Tatjana Xenia, 2018. "Cyclicality of growth opportunities and the value of cash holdings," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 74-96.
    5. Li, Yunhe & Liu, Yu & Xie, Feixue, 2019. "Technology directors and firm innovation," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 76-88.
    6. Charles W. Calomiris & Yehuda Izhakian & Jaime F. Zender, 2019. "Underwriter Reputation, Issuer-Underwriter Matching, and SEO Performance," NBER Working Papers 26344, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Lu, Feifei & Zhu, Zhu & Zhu, Lina & Gao, Hao, 2022. "Political tie hot potato: The contingent effect of China's anti-corruption policy on cash and innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(4).
    8. Chang, Chong-Chuo & Tang, Hui-Wen, 2021. "Corporate cash holdings and total factor productivity – A global analysis," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C).
    9. Roberta Piermartini & Stela Rubínová, 2021. "How much do global value chains boost innovation?," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 54(2), pages 892-922, May.
    10. Boone, J., 2006. "Firms Merge in Response to Constraints," Discussion Paper 2006-60, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    11. Arun Upadhyay & Hongchao Zeng, 2017. "Cash holdings and the bargaining power of R&D-intensive targets," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 49(4), pages 885-923, November.
    12. Josh Lerner & Amit Seru, 2017. "The Use and Misuse of Patent Data: Issues for Corporate Finance and Beyond," NBER Working Papers 24053, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Boone, J., 2006. "Firms Merge in Response to Constraints," Other publications TiSEM 758c347a-a2e4-4438-b365-7, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    14. Alam, Md Samsul & Safiullah, Md & Islam, Md Shahidul, 2022. "Cash-rich firms and carbon emissions," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 81(C).
    15. Moritzen, Mark Raun & Schandlbauer, Alexander, 2020. "The impact of competition and time-to-finance on corporate cash holdings," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    16. Kremer, Michael R., 1998. "Patent Buyouts: A Mechanism for Encouraging Innovation," Scholarly Articles 3693705, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    17. Ma, Liang & Mello, Antonio S. & Wu, Youchang, 2020. "First-mover advantage, time to finance, and cash holdings," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    18. Vesperoni , Alberto, 2013. "War Finance and the Modern State," NEPS Working Papers 6/2013, Network of European Peace Scientists.
    19. Chen, Yangyang & Dou, Paul Y. & Rhee, S. Ghon & Truong, Cameron & Veeraraghavan, Madhu, 2015. "National culture and corporate cash holdings around the world," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1-18.
    20. Martin Boileau & Nathalie Moyen, 2016. "Corporate Cash Holdings And Credit Line Usage," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1481-1506, November.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    patent race; incumbent; entrant; financial constraints; empirical estimation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

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