Robust estimates of the impact of broadcasting on match attendance in football
The paper employs data from 2,884 matches, of which 158 were televised, in the second tier of English football (currently known as The Football League Championship). It builds a model of the determinants of attendance that is designed to yield estimates of the proportionate changes in the size of crowds resulting from games being shown on either free-to-air or subscription based channels. The model has two innovatory features. First, it controls for the market size of home and away teams very precisely by including local population measures constructed from the application of GIS software and information on competition from other clubs. Second, it employs the Hausman-Taylor random effects estimator in order to take explicit account of the endogeneity of the television coverage variable and of other variables typically included in earlier studies based on ordinary least squares or fixed effects models of attendance. The Hausman-Taylor estimates of the impact of broadcasting are greater than those reported in such studies. In the case of free-to-air television, the negative impact is estimated as over 20 percent but for subscription television, which carried most of the transmissions, the negative effect was only of the order of 5 percent.
|Date of creation:||2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: LANCASTER LA1 4YX|
Phone: +44 (1524) 594601
Fax: +44 (1524) 594244
Web page: http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/lums
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jeffery Borland, 2003. "Demand for Sport," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(4), pages 478-502, Winter.
- Jaume Garcia & Placido Rodriguez, 2002. "The Determinants of Football Match Attendance Revisited: Empirical Evidence from the Spanish Football League," Journal of Sports Economics, The North American Association of Sports Economists, vol. 3(1), pages 18-38, February.
- David Forrest & Rob Simmons & Stefan Szymanski, 2004. "Broadcasting, Attendance and the Inefficiency of Cartels," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 24(3), pages 243-265, 05.
- Hausman, Jerry A. & Taylor, William E., 1981.
"Panel data and unobservable individual effects,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 155-155, May.
- Peter Egger & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2004.
"Distance, trade and FDI: a Hausman-Taylor SUR approach,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(2), pages 227-246.
- Peter Egger & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2001. "Distance, Trade and FDI: A Hausman-Taylor SUR Approach," WIFO Working Papers 164, WIFO.
- Forrest, David & Simmons, Robert & Feehan, Patrick, 2002. "A Spatial Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Elasticity of Demand for Soccer," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(3), pages 336-55, August.
- Baltagi, Badi H & Khanti-Akom, Sophon, 1990. "On Efficient Estimation with Panel Data: An Empirical Comparison of Instrumental Variables Estimators," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 5(4), pages 401-06, Oct.-Dec..
- Martin B. Schmidt & David J. Berri, 2001. "Competitive Balance and Attendance: The Case of Major League Baseball," Journal of Sports Economics, The North American Association of Sports Economists, vol. 2(2), pages 145-167, May.
- (*), Nigel Rice & Paul Contoyannis, 2001. "The impact of health on wages: Evidence from the British Household Panel Survey," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 599-622.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lan:wpaper:574575. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Giorgio Motta)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.