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A Generalized Utility Model with Binding Non-Negativity Constraints: Demand for Beer


  • Xiaonan Liu
  • Jeffrey T. LaFrance
  • Hayley H. Chouinard
  • Thomas L. Marsh


We propose a Generalized Quadratic Utility (GQU) model for an incomplete demand system with binding non-negativity constraints which is flexible in income and price effects. The model accounts for zero consumption using choke prices identified by Kuhn-Tucker conditions. The GQU demand system can overcome the analytical and computational difficulties of the Kuhn-Tucker approach. Applying a homothetic AIDS specification, we estimate the demand for ale and lager beers and find that household income, age, presence of child, and prices play significant roles in beer consumption. The own-price elasticities are greater than unity. The cross-price elasticities suggest substitutes between ales and lagers.

Suggested Citation

  • Xiaonan Liu & Jeffrey T. LaFrance & Hayley H. Chouinard & Thomas L. Marsh, 2013. "A Generalized Utility Model with Binding Non-Negativity Constraints: Demand for Beer," 2013 Papers pli830, Job Market Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:jmp:jm2013:pli830

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. J. Scott Shonkwiler & Steven T. Yen, 1999. "Two-Step Estimation of a Censored System of Equations," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(4), pages 972-982.
    2. Cragg, John G, 1971. "Some Statistical Models for Limited Dependent Variables with Application to the Demand for Durable Goods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(5), pages 829-844, September.
    3. Jeremy W. Bray & Brett R. Loomis & Mark Engelen, 2009. "You save money when you buy in bulk: does volume-based pricing cause people to buy more beer?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(5), pages 607-618.
    4. Lee, Lung-Fei & Pitt, Mark M., 1987. "Microeconometric models of rationing, imperfect markets, and non-negativity constraints," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 89-110.
    5. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    6. LaFrance, Jeffrey T., 1985. "Linear demand functions in theory and practice," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 147-166, October.
    7. Hausman, Jerry A, 1981. "Exact Consumer's Surplus and Deadweight Loss," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 662-676, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Golan, Amos & LaFrance, Jeffrey T & Perloff, Jeffrey M. & Seabold, Skipper, 2017. "Estimating a Demand System with Choke Prices," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt4qt9q8vr, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D11 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Theory
    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
    • L66 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco

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