IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/jet/dpaper/dpaper25.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Economic Reforms and Income Inequality in Urban China

Author

Listed:
  • Okushima, Shinichiro
  • Uchimura, Hiroko

Abstract

This paper reports the results of an analysis of changes in income inequality, and in its determinants, in urban China since the economic reforms that began in 1978. The intention is to identify new characteristics of economic inequality. It first shows that income differentials acrossand in provinces widened and that their economic rankings were becoming fixed during the period from 1988 to 1995. Second, age was the major factor in inequality in 1988, while education became the important factor in 1995. Third, education significantly contributed to increasing inequality during the period. Fourth, the higher education-level groups had less within-group inequality. These changes reflect the penetration of the market mechanism into China after the reforms. However, this will be problematic without equality of opportunity.

Suggested Citation

  • Okushima, Shinichiro & Uchimura, Hiroko, 2005. "Economic Reforms and Income Inequality in Urban China," IDE Discussion Papers 25, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  • Handle: RePEc:jet:dpaper:dpaper25
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://ir.ide.go.jp/?action=repository_action_common_download&item_id=38140&item_no=1&attribute_id=22&file_no=1
    File Function: First version, 2005
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. John Knight & Li Shi, 1993. "The Determinants of Educational Attainment in China," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Keith Griffin & Zhao Renwei (ed.), The Distribution of Income in China, chapter 8, pages 285-330, Palgrave Macmillan.
    2. Jonathan Morduch & Terry Sicular, 2002. "Rethinking Inequality Decomposition, With Evidence from Rural China," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(476), pages 93-106, January.
    3. Theodore W. Schultz, 1962. "Reflections on Investment in Man," NBER Chapters, in: Investment in Human Beings, pages 1-8, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Theodore W. Schultz, 1960. "Capital Formation by Education," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68, pages 571-571.
    5. Bourguignon, Francois, 1979. "Decomposable Income Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(4), pages 901-920, July.
    6. Aaberge, Rolf & Li, Xuezeng, 1997. "The Trend in Urban Income Inequality in Two Chinese Provinces, 1986-90," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 43(3), pages 335-355, September.
    7. Hussain, Athar & Lanjouw, Peter & Stern, Nicholas, 1994. "Income inequalities in China: Evidence from household survey data," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(12), pages 1947-1957, December.
    8. Kanbur, Ravi & Zhang, Xiaobo, 1999. "Which Regional Inequality? The Evolution of Rural-Urban and Inland-Coastal Inequality in China from 1983 to 1995," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 686-701, December.
    9. Fields, Gary S & Yoo, Gyeongjoon, 2000. "Falling Labor Income Inequality in Korea's Economic Growth: Patterns and Underlying Causes," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 46(2), pages 139-159, June.
    10. Rolf Aaberge & Xuezeng Li, 1997. "The Trend In Urban Income Inequality In Two Chinese Provinces, 1986–90," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 43(3), pages 335-355, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Zhang, Xiaobo & Kanbur, Ravi, 2005. "Spatial inequality in education and health care in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 189-204.
    2. Guanghua Wan & Zhangyue Zhou, 2005. "Income Inequality in Rural China: Regression‐based Decomposition Using Household Data," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(1), pages 107-120, February.
    3. Xin Meng, 2004. "Economic Restructuring and Income Inequality in Urban China," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 50(3), pages 357-379, September.
    4. Uchimura, Hiroko, 2005. "Influence of Social Institutions on Inequality in China," IDE Discussion Papers 26, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    5. Frank Cowell & Carlo Fiorio, 2011. "Inequality decompositions—a reconciliation," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 9(4), pages 509-528, December.
    6. Kanbur, Ravi & Zhang, Xiaobo, 1999. "Which Regional Inequality? The Evolution of Rural-Urban and Inland-Coastal Inequality in China from 1983 to 1995," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 686-701, December.
    7. Frank Cowell & Carlo V. Fiorio, 2010. "GINI DP 4: Inequality Decompositions," GINI Discussion Papers 4, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
    8. Teixidó Figueras, Jordi & Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality: A methodological review and some results," Working Papers 2072/203168, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    9. Karoly, Lynn & Schröder, Carsten, 2015. "Fast methods for jackknifing inequality indices," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 37(1), pages 125-138.
    10. Xing, Li & Fan, Shenggen & Luo, Xiaopeng & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2006. "Village Inequality in Western China," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25390, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. Gustafsson, Björn & LI, Shi & Sato, Hiroshi, 2014. "Data for studying earnings, the distribution of household income and poverty in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 419-431.
    12. Zhicheng Liang, 2006. "Financial Development And Income Distribution: A System Gmm Panel Analysis With Application To Urban China," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 31(2), pages 1-21, December.
    13. Guanghua Wan & Ming Lu & Zhao Chen, 2004. "Globalization and Regional Income Inequality: Evidence from within China," WIDER Working Paper Series DP2004-10, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    14. Hoang Van Long, 2013. "Unequal Regional Development in Rural Vietnam: Sources of Spatial Disparities and Policy Considerations," Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, AMH International, vol. 5(6), pages 325-335.
    15. Stephen P. Jenkins & John Micklewright, 2007. "New Directions in the Analysis of Inequality and Poverty," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 700, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    16. Hrushikesh Mallick & Mantu Kumar Mahalik & Hemachandra Padhan, 2020. "Does globalization exacerbate income inequality in two largest emerging economies? The role of FDI and remittances inflows," International Review of Economics, Springer;Happiness Economics and Interpersonal Relations (HEIRS), vol. 67(4), pages 443-480, December.
    17. Arthur Charpentier & Stéphane Mussard, 2011. "Income inequality games," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 9(4), pages 529-554, December.
    18. Lorenzo Serrano-Martínez, 1999. "Capital humano, estructura sectorial y crecimiento en las regiones españolas," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 23(2), pages 225-249, May.
    19. Xiaoyun Liu & Terry Sicular, 2009. "Nonagricultural Employment Determinants and Income Inequality Decomposition," Chinese Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(4), pages 29-43, July.
    20. Omoniyi B Alimi & David C Maré & Jacques Poot, 2020. "The effects of immigration and skills on urban income inequality in New Zealand: two decomposition approaches," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 2023, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Asia; China; Income inequality; Economic reform; Education; Urban; Income distribution; Economic policy; アジア; 中国; 教育; 所得分配; 経済政策;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • P20 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:jet:dpaper:dpaper25. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/idegvjp.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sho Enomoto (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/idegvjp.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.