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For Benevolence and for Self-Interest: Social and Commercial Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations

Author

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  • Estrin, Saul

    () (London School of Economics)

  • Mickiewicz, Tomasz

    () (Aston University)

  • Stephan, Ute

    () (Aston University)

Abstract

We conceptualise social entrepreneurship as a source of social capital which, when present in the environment, enhances commercial entrepreneurship. We also argue that social entrepreneurship should be recognised as a second form of Baumol's (1990) productive entrepreneurship and that it will therefore compete at the individual level for resources with commercial entrepreneurship. Unlike institutional void theory, we see social entrepreneurship as conditional on institutional quality, but consistent with the institutional void perspective we see it as filling the gaps where government activism is lower. These arguments motivate our hypotheses that we test and largely confirm applying multilevel modelling. Our analysis is based on population-representative samples in 47 countries (the 2009 GEM dataset).

Suggested Citation

  • Estrin, Saul & Mickiewicz, Tomasz & Stephan, Ute, 2011. "For Benevolence and for Self-Interest: Social and Commercial Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations," IZA Discussion Papers 5770, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5770
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia & Skrondal, Anders & Pickles, Andrew, 2005. "Maximum likelihood estimation of limited and discrete dependent variable models with nested random effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 128(2), pages 301-323, October.
    2. Joachim Wagner & Rolf Sternberg, 2004. "Start-up activities, individual characteristics, and the regional milieu: Lessons for entrepreneurship support policies from German micro data," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 38(2), pages 219-240, June.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    socio-cognitive theory; social capital; social entrepreneurship; institutional theory; resources;

    JEL classification:

    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

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