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Targeting Fertility and Female Participation Through the Income Tax

Author

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  • Azmat, Ghazala

    () (Sciences Po, Paris)

  • Gonzalez, Libertad

    () (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)

Abstract

We evaluate the effect of a 2003 reform in the Spanish income tax on fertility and the employment of mothers with small children. The reform introduced a tax credit for working mothers with children under the age of three, while also increasing child deductions for all households with children. Theoretically, given the interplay of these two components, the expected effect of the reform is ambiguous on both outcomes. We find that the combined reforms significantly increased both fertility (by almost five percent) and the employment rate of mothers with children under three (by two percent). These effects were more pronounced among less-educated women. In addition, to disentangle the impact of the two reform components, we use an earlier reform that increased child deductions in 1999. We find that the child deductions affect mothers' employment negatively, which implies that the 2003 tax credit would have increased employment even more (up to five percent) in the absence of the change in child deductions.

Suggested Citation

  • Azmat, Ghazala & Gonzalez, Libertad, 2009. "Targeting Fertility and Female Participation Through the Income Tax," IZA Discussion Papers 4405, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4405
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    Cited by:

    1. Asai, Yukiko, 2015. "Parental leave reforms and the employment of new mothers: Quasi-experimental evidence from Japan," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 72-83.
    2. Nezih Guner & Ezgi Kaya & Virginia Sánchez-Marcos, 2014. "Gender gaps in Spain: policies and outcomes over the last three decades," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 61-103, March.
    3. Osuna, Victoria, 2018. "What accounts for the increase in female labor force participation in Spain," Economics Discussion Papers 2018-6, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    4. Stichnoth, Holger, 2014. "Short-run fertility effects of parental leave benefits: Evidence from a structural model," ZEW Discussion Papers 14-069, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    5. repec:hpe:journl:y:2017:v:222:i:3:p:9-41 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Haan, Peter & Wrohlich, Katharina, 2011. "Can child care policy encourage employment and fertility?: Evidence from a structural model," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 498-512, August.
    7. repec:zbw:ifweej:201816 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Nakajima, Ryo & Tanaka, Ryuichi, 2014. "Estimating the effects of pronatal policies on residential choice and fertility," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 179-200.
    9. Nollenberger, Natalia & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria, 2011. "Child Care, Maternal Employment and Persistence: A Natural Experiment from Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 5888, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Nollenberger, Natalia & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria, 2015. "Full-time universal childcare in a context of low maternal employment: Quasi-experimental evidence from Spain," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 124-136.
    11. Kamila Cygan-Rehm, 2016. "Parental leave benefit and differential fertility responses: evidence from a German reform," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 29(1), pages 73-103, January.
    12. Cygan-Rehm, Kamila, 2013. "Earnings-Dependent Parental Leave Benefit and Fertility: Evidence from Germany," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 80021, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    13. Mizuochi, Masaaki, 2012. "The Effect of Work-family Balance Policy on Childbirth and Women's Work," Discussion Paper Series 575, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    14. Pau Baizán, 2009. "Regional child care availability and fertility decisions in Spain," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 21(27), pages 803-842, December.
    15. Fernández-Kranz, Daniel & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria, 2013. "Can Parents' Right to Work Part-Time Hurt Childbearing-Aged Women? A Natural Experiment with Administrative Data," IZA Discussion Papers 7509, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    16. Kamila Cygan-Rehm, 2015. "Parental Leave Benefit and Differential Fertility Responses: Evidence from a German Reform," CESifo Working Paper Series 5397, CESifo Group Munich.
    17. Kamila Cygan-Rehm, 2013. "Parental leave benefit and differential fertility responses: Evidence from a German reform," Working Papers 142, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE).
    18. Gahramanov, Emin & Gaibulloev, Khusrav & Younas, Javed, 2017. "Parental Transfers and Fertility: Does the Recipient's Gender Matter?," MPRA Paper 79531, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Kamila Cygan-Rehm, 2016. "Parental leave benefit and differential fertility responses: evidence from a German reform," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 29(1), pages 73-103, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    family policy; fertility; female labor force participation; tax credit; child subsidy;

    JEL classification:

    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • H31 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Household

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