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Subsidizing Firm Entry in Open Economies

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  • Pflüger, Michael P.

    () (University of Würzburg)

  • Suedekum, Jens

    () (Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf)

Abstract

Entrepreneurs who decide to enter an industry are faced with different levels of effective entry costs in different countries. These costs are heavily influenced by economic policy. What is not well understood is how international trade affects the government incentive to impact on entry costs, and how entry subsidies can be used strategically in open economies. We present a general equilibrium model of monopolistic competition with two (potentially) asymmetric countries and heterogeneous firms where government subsidizes entry of domestic entrepreneurs. Under autarky the entry subsidy indirectly corrects for the monopoly pricing distortion. In the autarky equilibrium these subsidies trigger entry, but they eventually do not lead to more but to better firms in the market. In the open economy there is another, strategic motive for entry subsidies as the tightening of domestic market selection also affects exporting decisions for domestic and foreign firms. Our analysis shows that entry subsidies in the Nash-equilibrium are first increasing, then decreasing in the level of trade openness. This implies a U-shaped relationship between openness and effective entry costs. Merging cross-country data on entry costs with international trade openness indices we empirically confirm this theoretical prediction.

Suggested Citation

  • Pflüger, Michael P. & Suedekum, Jens, 2009. "Subsidizing Firm Entry in Open Economies," IZA Discussion Papers 4384, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4384
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    Cited by:

    1. Maximilian Von Ehrlich & Tobias Seidel, 2013. "Regional Implications of Financial Market Development: Credit Rationing, Trade, and Location," CESifo Working Paper Series 4063, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Bauer, Christian & Davies, Ronald B. & Haufler, Andreas, 2014. "Economic integration and the optimal corporate tax structure with heterogeneous firms," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 42-56.
    3. von Ehrlich, Maximilian & Seidel, Tobias, 2013. "More similar firms — More similar regions? On the role of firm heterogeneity for agglomeration," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 539-548.
    4. Langenmayr, Dominika & Haufler, Andreas & Bauer, Christian J., 2015. "Should tax policy favor high- or low-productivity firms?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 18-34.
    5. Kammerer, Hannes, 2013. "Lobbying for Subsidies with Heterogeneous Firms," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79767, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    6. Hassan Molana & Catia Montagna, 2015. "Selection, Trade, and Employment: the Strategic Use of Subsidies," WWWforEurope Policy Paper series 21, WWWforEurope.
    7. Bohnstedt, Anna & Schwarz, Christian & Suedekum, Jens, 2012. "Globalization and strategic research investments," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 13-23.
    8. MORITA Tadashi & SAWADA Yukiko & YAMAMOTO Kazuhiro, 2016. "Subsidy Competition, Imperfect Labor Market, and Endogenous Entry of Firms," Discussion papers 16096, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    9. Michael Pflüger & Stephan Russek, 2013. "Business Conditions and Exit Risks Across Countries," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 24(5), pages 963-976, November.
    10. Felbermayr, Gabriel & Jung, Benjamin & Larch, Mario, 2013. "Optimal tariffs, retaliation, and the welfare loss from tariff wars in the Melitz model," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 13-25.
    11. repec:eee:inecon:v:107:y:2017:i:c:p:19-33 is not listed on IDEAS
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    13. Broocks, Annette & Van Biesebroeck, Johannes, 2017. "The impact of export promotion on export market entry," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 19-33.
    14. Miyagiwa, Kaz & Sato, Yasuhiro, 2014. "Free entry and regulatory competition in a global economy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 1-14.
    15. Gerritse, Michiel, 2014. "Competing for firms under agglomeration: Policy timing and welfare," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 48-57.
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    17. Rutzer, Christian, 2014. "A Theory of Trade Liberalization and Innovations with Heterogeneous Firms," Working papers 2014/02, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    18. Bohnstedt, Anna, 2014. "Are Public and Private R&D Investments Complements or Substitutes?," Ruhr Economic Papers 485, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
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    20. Anna Bohnstedt, 2014. "Are Public and Private R&D Investments Complements or Substitutes?," Ruhr Economic Papers 0485, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    strategic trade policy; firm entry; subsidies; heterogeneous firms; international trade; monopolistic competition; entry regulation;

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms

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