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The Stability of Mixed Income Neighborhoods in America

  • Krupka, Douglas J.

    (University of Michigan)

Whether people of differing types can live happily together is one of the most important social and political questions concerning urban areas. From a variety of theoretical perspectives, such mixing seems extremely unlikely. While the theoretical result seems well supported in the context of race, the evidence for income mixing is much less stark. Compared to the strict segregation predicted by the models (and embodied in the context of race), Americans live in economically diverse neighborhoods. While this has lead to some further theoretical experiments, the stability of this mixing has never been addressed as an empirical matter. It would be naïve to look at cross-sectional snapshots of income mixing as representing stable situations, since neighborhood change is a prevalent feature of American urban economies. This paper sketches out the empirical implications of slow transition towards the predicted equilibrium, and tests those implications. It is the first paper to directly evaluate the persistence and stability of mixed-income communities. The results are supportive of the three models of income segregation: income mixing appears to be unstable, although the adjustment process is slow. This work is of especial importance due to the focus mixed-income communities receive in the urban planning and policy.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 3370.

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Length: 61 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3370
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  1. Frankel, David M., 1998. "A Pecuniary Reason for Income Mixing," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 158-169, July.
  2. Miller, Vincent P. & Quigley, John M., 1990. "Segregation by Racial and Demographic Group: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1839w13f, University of California Transportation Center.
  3. Miyao, Takahiro, 1978. "Dynamic Instability of a Mixed City in the Presence of Neighborhood Externalities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(3), pages 454-63, June.
  4. Schelling, Thomas C, 1969. "Models of Segregation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 488-93, May.
  5. Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416.
  6. Rosenthal, Stuart S., 2008. "Old homes, externalities, and poor neighborhoods. A model of urban decline and renewal," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 816-840, May.
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