IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp11768.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Faces of Joblessness in Italy: A People-Centred Perspective on Employment Barriers and Policies

Author

Listed:
  • Pacifico, Daniele

    (OECD)

  • Browne, James

    (OECD)

  • Fernandez, Rodrigo

    (OECD)

  • Immervoll, Herwig

    () (OECD)

  • Neumann, Dirk

    () (OECD)

  • Thévenot, Céline

    (OECD)

Abstract

In the aftermath of the financial and economic crisis, large shares of working-age individuals in Italy either did not work or only to a limited extent. As the employment rate bottomed out in 2013, 32% were without employment during the entire year, and a further 7% had weak labour-market attachment, working only a fraction of the year, or on restricted working hours. This paper applies a novel method for measuring and visualising employment barriers of individuals with no or weak labour-market attachment, using household micro-data. It first develops indicators to quantify employment obstacles under three broad headings: (i) work-related capabilities, (ii) incentives, and (iii) employment opportunities. It then uses these indicators in conjunction with a statistical clustering approach to identify unobserved ("latent") groups of individuals facing similar combinations of barriers. The resulting typology of labour-market difficulties provides insights on the most pressing policy priorities in supporting different groups into employment. A detailed policy discussion illustrates the use of these empirical results to inform people-centred assessments of existing labour-market integration measures and of key challenges across different policy areas and institutions. The most common employment obstacles in Italy were limited work experience, low education and skill levels, and scarce job opportunities. Although financial disincentives, health limitations and care responsibilities were less widespread overall, they remained important barriers for some groups. A striking finding is that more than half of jobless or low-intensity workers face three or more simultaneous barriers, highlighting the limits of narrow policy approaches that focus on subsets of these employment obstacles in isolation.

Suggested Citation

  • Pacifico, Daniele & Browne, James & Fernandez, Rodrigo & Immervoll, Herwig & Neumann, Dirk & Thévenot, Céline, 2018. "Faces of Joblessness in Italy: A People-Centred Perspective on Employment Barriers and Policies," IZA Discussion Papers 11768, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp11768
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp11768.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Card, David & Kluve, Jochen & Weber, Andrea, 2015. "What works? A meta analysis of recent active labor market program evaluations," Ruhr Economic Papers 572, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    2. Massimo Baldini & Daniele Pacifico, 2009. "The Recent reforms of the Italian Personal Income Tax: Distributive and Efficiency Effects," Rivista italiana degli economisti, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 1, pages 191-218.
    3. Colonna, Fabrizio & Marcassa, Stefania, 2012. "Taxation and Labor Force Participation: The Case of Italy," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Docweb) 1203, CEPREMAP.
    4. Boone, Jan & van Ours, Jan C, 2004. "Effective Active Labour Market Policies," CEPR Discussion Papers 4707, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Daniela Del Boca & Daniela Vuri, 2007. "The mismatch between employment and child care in Italy: the impact of rationing," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 20(4), pages 805-832, October.
    6. Rodrigo Fernandez & Herwig Immervoll & Daniele Pacifico & Céline Thévenot, 2016. "Faces of Joblessness: Characterising Employment Barriers to Inform Policy," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 192, OECD Publishing.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    employment barriers; profiling; activation; policy coordination;

    JEL classification:

    • C38 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Classification Methdos; Cluster Analysis; Principal Components; Factor Analysis
    • H31 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Household
    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor
    • J6 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
    • J8 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp11768. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak). General contact details of provider: http://www.iza.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.