Mudanças na Concentração Espacial das Ocupações nas Atividades Manufatureiras no Brasil – 1872-1920
O trabalho apresenta perspectivas históricas às desigualdades econômicas regionais no Brasil. São analisadas as mudanças na concentração espacial das atividades econômicas baseadas em dados sobre a distribuição da força de trabalho a partir dos Censos de 1872 e 1920. A Nova Geografia Econômica (NGE) é o arcabouço analítico que mostra como geografia, custos de transporte e dotação de fatores deram impulso à industrialização da cidade de São Paulo e por que o acelerado crescimento industrial teve impacto tão limitado e defasado no restante do país. Em suma, a explicação está na redução dos custos de transporte gerada pelas ferrovias associada à imigração internacional subsidiada como solução institucional para a carência de mão-de-obra. Resultados econométricos mostraram que a Nova Geografia Econômica é uma ferramenta para compreender as raízes das desigualdades regionais no Brasil. O modelo de localização das atividades manufatureiras em 1920 sugere a importância dos custos de transporte, forças aglomerativas e externalidades associadas à imigração na concentração espacial da indústria brasileira. This paper provides historical perspectives on regional economic inequalities in Brazil. It analyzes the changes in the spatial concentration of economic activities based upon data on the municipal distribution of the labor force by occupation from the Censuses of 1872 and 1920. The New Economic Geography provides the analytical framework to show how geography, transport costs and factor endowments gave industrial preeminence to the city of São Paulo and why the accelerated industrial growth had such a limited and delayed effects in the rest of the country. In short, the explanation lies in the significant reduction in transport costs brought by railroads associated with subsidized international migration as an institutional solution to the labor shortage problem. Estimation results show that the New Economic Geography is a tool to understand the roots of regional inequalities in Brazil. The model on the location of manufacturing activities in 1920 indicates the importance of transport cost, agglomeration forces and the externalities associated with overseas immigration in the spatial concentration of Brazilian industrialization.
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