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Barriers to Exit

  • Alberto Chong

    ()

  • Gianmarco León

Unlike previous empirical studies that focus on barriers to entry in international trade, we focus on barriers to exit as measured by passport costs for a cross-section of countries. We test four common theories on the determinants of such exit barriers and find that macroeconomic and brain-drain explanations do explain high barriers to exit. However, institutional and cultural hypotheses do not appear to be empirically robust explanations of such high barriers. Our findings hold when applying instrumental variables, changes in specification, and changes in cross-country periods.

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File URL: http://www.iadb.org/research/pub_hits.cfm?pub_id=WP-572&pub_file_name=pubWP-572.pdf
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Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 4476.

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Date of creation: Aug 2006
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4476
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  1. McKenzie, David J., 2005. "Paper walls are easier to tear down : passport costs and legal barriers to emigration," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3783, The World Bank.
  2. Simeon Djankov & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer & Juan Botero, 2003. "The Regulation of Labor," NBER Working Papers 9756, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Stephen Knack & Philip Keefer, 1995. "Institutions And Economic Performance: Cross-Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(3), pages 207-227, November.
  4. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1997. "I Just Ran Two Million Regressions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 178-83, May.
  5. Hatton, Timothy J., 1993. "A Model of UK Emigration, 1870-1913," CEPR Discussion Papers 771, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Miyagiwa, K., 1989. "Scale Economics In Education And The Brain Drain Problem," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 89-09, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
  7. Manning, Chris, 2001. "The East Asian Economic Crisis and Labour Migration: A Set-Back for International Economic Integration?," Departmental Working Papers 2001-03, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
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