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Reforma económica y diferencias de salarios en América Latina

  • Miguel Székely
  • Nancy Birdsall
  • Jere R. Behrman

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo se desarrolla y aplica un enfoque nuevo al cálculo de los efectos de las reformas económicas sobre las diferencias salarias, empleándose un nuevo conjunto de datos de alta calidad sobre las diferencias salariales por nivel de escolaridad en 18 países latinoamericanos durante el período 1980-1998. Los resultados indican que la reforma en general ha tenido un efecto efímero de fomento de la desigualdad de ampliar las diferencias salariales, aunque este efecto tiende a disiparse con el tiempo. Este efecto de aumento de la desigualdad se debe al considerable efecto de la reforma del mercado financiero interno, la apertura de la cuenta de capital y la reforma tributaria. Por otro lado, la privatización ha contribuido a estrechar las diferencias de salario, y la apertura del comercio internacional no ha tenido efecto alguno en las diferencias salariales. El avance tecnológico, más que los flujos del comercio internacional, parece ser un canal a través del cual las reformas inciden en la desigualdad. También se exploran los efectos de las reformas en los niveles de salario y los resultados preliminares sugieren que las mismas han tenido repercusiones positivas en el salario real promedio, pero un efecto negativo sobre el salario de trabajadores menos preparados.

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Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 4236.

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Date of creation: Oct 2000
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4236
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