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Mantenerse público o privatizar? Análisis comparativo del servicio de agua entre Quito y Guayaquil

  • Paul Carrillo
  • Orazio Bellettini
  • Elizabeth Coombs

En el presente documento se analiza la evolución de algunos indicadores sobre la provisión de agua potable en las dos principales ciudades de Ecuador. En Quito, el agua potable ha sido administrada directamente por la municipalidad mientras que en Guayaquil estos servicios fueron privatizados. El estudio compara varios índices de cobertura, calidad, y precios del agua potable, antes y después de la privatización, y entre estas dos ciudades. Los resultados sugieren que después de la privatización, a) el nivel de cobertura de agua potable en Guayaquil ha disminuido en comparación con el de Quito, particularmente dentro del grupo económico más pobre (primer quintil del ingreso); b) la presión del agua en Guayaquil ha disminuido en comparación a la Quito; y, c) el precio promedio del agua es más alto y ha aumentado a un ritmo más elevado en Guayaquil. Se advierte que estos resultados deben ser interpretados con mucha cautela ya que Quito no constituye un grupo de control adecuado para identificar el efecto causal de la privatización. Para ilustrar este argumento, se describe que las tendencias de cobertura de agua potable y la tasa de migración urbano-rural han sido radicalmente diferentes en las dos ciudades. Así mismo, por medio de un análisis institucional exhaustivo, se determina que las dos compañías son muy diferentes y que, asimetrías en su estructura institucional podrían explicar una gran parte de los resultados. El artículo concluye que en la década pasada, los servicios de agua potable en Quito han mejorado relativamente a los de Guayaquil; sin embargo, se enfatiza que el atraso relativo de la empresa Guayaquileña no puede ser atribuido exclusivamente a su privatización.

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Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 3237.

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Date of creation: Aug 2007
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:3237
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  1. Clarke, George R. G. & Kosec, Katrina & Wallsten, Scott, 2004. "Has private participation in water and sewerage improved coverage? - empirical evidence from Latin America," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3445, The World Bank.
  2. Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "State Versus Private Ownership," NBER Working Papers 6665, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Barberis, Nicholas & Maxim Boycko & Andrei Shleifer & Natalia Tsukanova, 1996. "How Does Privatization Work? Evidence from the Russian Shops," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(4), pages 764-90, August.
  4. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane, 1997. "The Benefits of Privatization: Evidence from Mexico," NBER Working Papers 6215, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Sebastian Galiani & Paul Gertler & Ernesto Schargrodsky, 2002. "Water for Life: The Impact of the Privatization of Water Services on Child Mortality," Working Papers 54, Universidad de San Andres, Departamento de Economia, revised Sep 2005.
  6. Megginson, William L & Nash, Robert C & van Randenborgh, Matthias, 1994. " The Financial and Operating Performance of Newly Privatized Firms: An International Empirical Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(2), pages 403-52, June.
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