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Glass Ceiling in Research: Evidence from a National Program in Uruguay

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  • Bukstein, Daniel
  • Gandelman, Néstor

Abstract

This paper presents evidence that female researchers have 7.1 percentage points lower probability of being accepted into the largest national research support program in Uruguay than male researchers. They also have lower research productivity than their male counterparts. Differences in observable characteristics explain 4.9 of the 7.1 percentage point gap. The gender gap is wider at the higher ranks of the program consistent with the existence of a glass ceiling. The results are robust to issues of bidirectionality (impact of research productivity on the probability of accessing the program and impact of the program on research productivity), joint determination and correlation of variables (e.g. having a Ph.D., publishing, and tutoring), and initial productivity effects (positive results at early stages may have long-term effects on career development). The paper presents three hypotheses for the gender gap (an original sin in the organization of the system, biases in the composition of evaluation committees, and differences in field of concentration) and finds some evidence for each. Glass ceilings are stronger in the fields where women are overrepresented among the applicants to the system: medical sciences, natural sciences, and humanities. Finally, it presents a counterfactual distribution of the program in the absence of discriminatory treatment of women and discusses the economic costs of the gender gap.

Suggested Citation

  • Bukstein, Daniel & Gandelman, Néstor, 2018. "Glass Ceiling in Research: Evidence from a National Program in Uruguay," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 8244, Inter-American Development Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:idb:brikps:8244
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    Cited by:

    1. Madhurima Basu & Anubha Shekhar Sinha, 2021. "The Glass-Ceiling Phenomenon: A Literature Review and Research AgendaAbstract: In a patriarchal society with values that are mostly male-dominated, it is indeed difficult for a woman to secure a deser," Working papers 425, Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode.
    2. Domingo Sifontes & Rosa Morales, 0. "Gender differences and patenting in Latin America: understanding female participation in commercial science," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 0, pages 1-28.
    3. Domingo Sifontes & Rosa Morales, 2020. "Gender differences and patenting in Latin America: understanding female participation in commercial science," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 124(3), pages 2009-2036, September.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    research; gender gap; female researchers;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J4 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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