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Intellectual Property Rights and Crop-Improving R&D under Adaptive Destruction

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Abstract

This paper studies how the strength of intellectual property rights (IPRs) affects investments in biological innovations when the value of an innovation is stochastically reduced to zero because of the evolution of pest resistance. We frame the problem as a research and development (R&D) investment game in a duopoly model of sequential innovation. We characterize the incentives to invest in R&D under two competing IPR regimes, which differ in their treatment of the follow-on innovations that become necessary because of pest adaptation. Depending on the magnitude of the R&D cost, ex ante firms might prefer an intellectual property regime with or without a "research exemption" provision. The study of the welfare function that also accounts for benefit spillovers to consumers—which is possible analytically under some parametric conditions, and numerically otherwise—shows that the ranking of the two IPR regimes depends critically on the extent of the R&D cost.

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  • Oleg Yerokhin & GianCarlo Moschini, 2007. "Intellectual Property Rights and Crop-Improving R&D under Adaptive Destruction," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 07-wp449, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  • Handle: RePEc:ias:cpaper:07-wp449
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. GianCarlo Moschini, 2003. "Intellectual Property Rights and the World Trade Organization: Retrospect and Prospects," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 03-wp334, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
    2. Terrance Hurley & Silvia Secchi & Bruce Babcock & Richard Hellmich, 2002. "Managing the Risk of European Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Corn," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 22(4), pages 537-558, August.
    3. William A. Brock & Anastasios Xepapadeas, 2003. "Valuing Biodiversity from an Economic Perspective: A Unified Economic, Ecological, and Genetic Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(5), pages 1597-1614, December.
    4. Denicolo, Vincenzo, 1999. "The optimal life of a patent when the timing of innovation is stochastic," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 827-846, August.
    5. James Bessen & Eric Maskin, 2009. "Sequential innovation, patents, and imitation," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 40(4), pages 611-635.
    6. Timo Goeschl & Timothy Swanson, 2003. "On Biology and Technology: The Economics of Managing Biotechnologies," Working Papers 2003.42, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    7. Alix-Garcia, Jennifer Marie & Zilberman, David, 2004. "The Effect of Market Structure on Pest Resistance Buildup," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20273, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
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    Cited by:

    1. Eaton, Derek, 2015. "Innovation and IPRs for Agricultural Crop Varieties as Intermediate Goods," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 211581, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    2. Derek Eaton, 2013. "Innovation and IPRs in the Agricultural Seed Sector," CIES Research Paper series 19-2013, Centre for International Environmental Studies, The Graduate Institute.
    3. Baudry Marc & Hervouet Adrien, 2016. "Innovation in the Seed Market: The Role of IPRs and Commercialization Rules," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 14(1), pages 51-68, May.
    4. Eaton, Derek, 2014. "A model of IPRs in the international supply chain of seeds and agricultural production," 2014 International Congress, August 26-29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia 182643, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. José Maria Ferreira Jardim Da Silveira & Vinicius Ferrari & Maria Ester S. Dal Poz, 2018. "Patentes Em Biotecnologia Agrícola: Indicador De ?Capacidade Bloqueante Legal ?(Cbl) E Estratégias De Apropriabilidade," Anais do XLIV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 44th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 145, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    6. Marc Baudry & Adrien Hervouet, 2014. "Promoting innovation on the seed market and biodiversity: the role of IPRs and commercialisation rules," EconomiX Working Papers 2014-32, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.

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    Keywords

    biological resistance; intellectual property rights; Markov perfect equilibrium; patents; research exemption; R&D; sequential innovation.;

    JEL classification:

    • L00 - Industrial Organization - - General - - - General
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
    • Q28 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy

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