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Small Business Set-asides in Procurement Auctions: An Empirical Analysis

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  • Jun Nakabayashi

Abstract

As part of public procurement, many governments adopt small business programs to provide contract opportunities for businesses often with preferences for firms operated by members of groups designated as disadvantaged. The redistribution arising from such programs, however, can introduce significant added costs to government procurement budgets. In this paper, the extent to which small business set-asides increase government procurement costs is examined. The estimates employ data on Japanese public construction projects, where approximately half of the procurement budget is set aside for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Applying a positive relationship between profitability and firm size obtained by the non-parametric estimation of asymmetric first-price auctions with affiliated private values, a counterfactual simulation is undertaken to demonstrate that approximately 40 percent of SMEs would exit the procurement market if set-asides were to be removed. Surprisingly, the resulting lack of competition would increase government procurement costs more than it would offset the production cost inefficiency.

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  • Jun Nakabayashi, 2010. "Small Business Set-asides in Procurement Auctions: An Empirical Analysis," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd09-126, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hst:ghsdps:gd09-126
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    Cited by:

    1. NAKABAYASHI Jun & HIROSE Yohsuke, 2016. "Structural Estimation of the Scoring Auction Model," Discussion papers 16008, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    2. Alcalde, José & Dahm, Matthias, 2020. "Affirmative Action Through Endogenous Set-Asides," QM&ET Working Papers 20-1, University of Alicante, D. Quantitative Methods and Economic Theory.
    3. Paulo R. C. Reis & Sandro Cabral, 2015. "Public procurement strategy: the impacts of a preference programme for small and micro businesses," Public Money & Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(2), pages 103-110, March.
    4. Bedri Kamil Onur Tas, 2020. "Effect of Public Procurement Regulation on Competition and Cost-Effectiveness," RSCAS Working Papers 2020/36, European University Institute.
    5. Hiroshi Ohashi, 2009. "Effects of Transparency in Procurement Practices on Government Expenditure: A Case Study of Municipal Public Works," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 34(3), pages 267-285, May.
    6. Rosa, Benjamin, 2016. "Subcontracting Requirements and the Cost of Government Procurement," MPRA Paper 77392, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Iuliia S. Pinkovetskaia & Igor V. Balynin, 2018. "Structure of Small and Medium-Sized Business- Results of Total Statistic Observations in Russia," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 14(1), pages 143-158.
    8. Benjamin V. Rosa, 2019. "Resident Bid Preference, Affiliation, and Procurement Competition: Evidence from New Mexico," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(2), pages 161-208, June.
    9. Sandro Cabral, 2017. "Reconciling Conflicting Policy Objectives in Public Contracting: The Enabling Role of Capabilities," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(6), pages 823-853, September.
    10. Gafurova, G. T. & Notfullina, G. N. & Fukina, S. P., 2016. "Government Procurements as a Tool for the Development of Small and Medium Business in Russia," R-Economy, Ural Federal University, Graduate School of Economics and Management, vol. 2(4), pages 500-508.
    11. José Alcalde & Matthias Dahm, "undated". "Supplier Diversity before the Time of Cholera," Discussion Papers in Economics 20/07, Division of Economics, School of Business, University of Leicester.
    12. Philippe Jehiel & Laurent Lamy, 2020. "On the Benefits of Set-Asides," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 18(4), pages 1655-1696.
    13. De Silva, Dakshina G. & Kosmopoulou, Georgia & Lamarche, Carlos, 2017. "Subcontracting and the survival of plants in the road construction industry: A panel quantile regression analysis," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 113-131.
    14. Klênio de Souza Barbosa & Pierre C. Boyer, 2011. "Competition for Local Public Services with Learning-by-doing and Transferability," Working Papers 06-2011, Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto.
    15. Bernhardt, Dan & Liu, Tingjun & Sogo, Takeharu, 2020. "Costly auction entry, royalty payments, and the optimality of asymmetric designs," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 188(C).
    16. Sundström, David, 2016. "A Comparison of Techniques to Evaluate Policies in Public Procurement," Umeå Economic Studies 928, Umeå University, Department of Economics, revised 17 Jun 2016.
    17. Nicholas Ryan, 2020. "Holding Up Green Energy," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 2294, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    18. Gulnara Gafurova & Svetlana Fookina & Galina Notfullina, 2016. "Public Procurement as an Instrument for the Development of Small and Medium-Sized Business in Russia," Economy of region, Centre for Economic Security, Institute of Economics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, vol. 1(4), pages 1233-1243.
    19. Barbara Orser & Allan Riding & Julie Weeks, 2019. "The efficacy of gender-based federal procurement policies in the United States," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 53(2), pages 491-515, August.
    20. Makoto HANAZONO & Jun NAKABAYASHI & Masanori TSURUOKA, 2013. "Procurement Auctions with General Price-Quality Evaluation," KIER Working Papers 845, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
    21. Mayr, Dieter & Schmidt, Johannes & Schmid, Erwin, 2014. "The potentials of a reverse auction in allocating subsidies for cost-effective roof-top photovoltaic system deployment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 555-565.
    22. Koki Arai & Emi Morimoto, 2019. "The Construction Industry and (Dis)Economies of Scope: Empirical Research in the Hokkaido Procurement Auction," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 281-292, June.
    23. Philippe Jehiel & Laurent Lamy, 2020. "On the Benefits of Set-Asides," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 18(4), pages 1655-1696.
    24. Bedri Kamil Onur Tas, 2020. "Effect of public procurement regulation on competition and cost-effectiveness," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 58(1), pages 59-77, August.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    procurement auctions; small business set-asides; structural estimation of auctions;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D44 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Auctions
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • H57 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Procurement
    • L74 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction - - - Construction

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