Small Business Set-asides in Procurement Auctions: An Empirical Analysis
As part of public procurement, many governments adopt small business programs to provide contract opportunities for businesses often with preferences for firms operated by members of groups designated as disadvantaged. The redistribution arising from such programs, however, can introduce significant added costs to government procurement budgets. In this paper, the extent to which small business set-asides increase government procurement costs is examined. The estimates employ data on Japanese public construction projects, where approximately half of the procurement budget is set aside for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Applying a positive relationship between profitability and firm size obtained by the non-parametric estimation of asymmetric first-price auctions with affiliated private values, a counterfactual simulation is undertaken to demonstrate that approximately 40 percent of SMEs would exit the procurement market if set-asides were to be removed. Surprisingly, the resulting lack of competition would increase government procurement costs more than it would offset the production cost inefficiency.
|Date of creation:||Mar 2010|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 2-1 Naka, Kunitachi City, Tokyo 186|
Web page: http://www.ier.hit-u.ac.jp/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Corns, Allan & Schotter, Andrew, 1996.
"Can Affirmative Action be Cost-Effective? An Experimental Examination of Price-Preference Auctions,"
96-02, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Andrew Schotter & Allan Corns, 1999. "Can Affirmative Action Be Cost Effective? An Experimental Examination of Price-Preference Auctions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(1), pages 291-305, March.
- Emmanuel Guerre & Isabelle Perrigne & Quang Vuong, 2000. "Optimal Nonparametric Estimation of First-Price Auctions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(3), pages 525-574, May.
- McAfee, R Preston & McMillan, John, 1987. "Auctions and Bidding," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 25(2), pages 699-738, June.
- Ian Ayres & Peter Cramton, 1996. "Deficit Reduction Through Diversity: How Affirmative Action at the FCC Increased Auction Competition," Papers of Peter Cramton 96slr, University of Maryland, Department of Economics - Peter Cramton, revised 09 Jun 1998.
- Robert G. Hansen, 1988. "Auctions with Endogenous Quantity," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(1), pages 44-58, Spring.
- Susan Athey & Jonathan Levin & Enrique Seira, 2008.
"Comparing Open and Sealed Bid Auctions: Evidence from Timber Auctions,"
08-012, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
- Susan Athey & Jonathan Levin & Enrique Seira, 2011. "Comparing open and Sealed Bid Auctions: Evidence from Timber Auctions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(1), pages 207-257.
- Susan Athey & Jonathan Levin & Enrique Seira, 2008. "Comparing Open and Sealed Bid Auctions: Evidence from Timber Auctions," NBER Working Papers 14590, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Levin, Dan & Smith, James L, 1994. "Equilibrium in Auctions with Entry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 585-599, June.
- Elena Krasnokutskaya, 2011. "Identification and Estimation of Auction Models with Unobserved Heterogeneity," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 78(1), pages 293-327.
- Zhang, Bin & Guler, Kemal, 2005. "Nonparametric estimation of asymmetric first price auctions: A simplified approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 318-322, September.
- Mireia Jofre-Bonet & Martin Pesendorfer, 2003.
"Estimation of a Dynamic Auction Game,"
Econometric Society, vol. 71(5), pages 1443-1489, 09.
- Guerre, E. & Perrigne, I. & Vuong, Q., 1995. "Nonparametric Estimation of First-Price Auctions," Papers 9504, Southern California - Department of Economics.
- Susan Athey & Dominic Coey & Jonathan Levin, 2011.
"Set-Asides and Subsidies in Auctions,"
NBER Working Papers
16851, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Zheng, Charles Z., 2001.
"High Bids and Broke Winners,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 129-171, September.
- Patrick Bajari & Lixin Ye, 2001.
"Deciding Between Competition and Collusion,"
01008, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
- John Asker & Estelle Cantillon, 2008.
"Properties of Scoring Auctions,"
ULB Institutional Repository
2013/172674, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Bulow, Jeremy & Roberts, John, 1989. "The Simple Economics of Optimal Auctions," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(5), pages 1060-1090, October.
- Marion, Justin, 2007. "Are bid preferences benign? The effect of small business subsidies in highway procurement auctions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(7-8), pages 1591-1624, August.
- Tong Li & Xiaoyong Zheng, 2006.
"Entry and competition effects in first-price auctions: theory and evidence from procurement auctions,"
CeMMAP working papers
CWP13/06, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Tong Li & Xiaoyong Zheng, 2009. "Entry and Competition Effects in First-Price Auctions: Theory and Evidence from Procurement Auctions," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 76(4), pages 1397-1429.
- Jun Nakabayashi, 2010. "Equilibria in Asymmetric Auctions with Entry," Tsukuba Economics Working Papers 2010-002, Economics, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba.
- Yeon-Koo Che, 1993.
"Design Competition through Multidimensional Auctions,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 24(4), pages 668-680, Winter.
- Che, Y.K., 1991. "Design Competition through Multidimensional Auctions," Working papers 9123, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Qi Li & Jeffrey Scott Racine, 2006. "Nonparametric Econometrics: Theory and Practice," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 8355.
- Milgrom,Paul, 2004.
"Putting Auction Theory to Work,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521536721, October.
- Paarsch, Harry J., 1992. "Deciding between the common and private value paradigms in empirical models of auctions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1-2), pages 191-215.
- Samuelson, William F., 1985. "Competitive bidding with entry costs," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 17(1-2), pages 53-57.
- Quang Vuong & Sandra Campo & Isabelle Perrigne, 2003. "Asymmetry in first-price auctions with affiliated private values," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(2), pages 179-207.
- Bajari, Patrick & Tadelis, Steven, 2001.
"Incentives versus Transaction Costs: A Theory of Procurement Contracts,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(3), pages 387-407, Autumn.
- Patrick Bajari & Steven Tadelis, 1999. "Incentives versus Transaction Costs: A Theory of Procurement Contracts," Working Papers 99029, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
- R. Preston McAfee & John McMillan, 1986. "Bidding for Contracts: A Principal-Agent Analysis," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(3), pages 326-338, Autumn.
- Jean-Jacques Laffont & Jean Tirole, 1993. "A Theory of Incentives in Procurement and Regulation," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262121743.
- McAfee, R. Preston & McMillan, John, 1987. "Auctions with entry," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 343-347.
- McAfee, R. Preston & McMillan, John, 1989. "Government procurement and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3-4), pages 291-308, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hst:ghsdps:gd09-126. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Tatsuji Makino)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.