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Strategic Alliances in the Japanese Economy: Types, Critiques, Embeddedness, and Change


  • Lincoln, James R.


This paper provides an overview and interpretive analysis of the Japanese strategic alliance process. Both international and domestic alliances are considered, although the emphasis is on domestic partnerships. I argue that the domestic Japanese economy is "underallianced" relative to Japanese firms' extensive involvement in partnerships with foreign firms. This is particularly true if government-sponsored consortia and keiretsu-based tie-ups are excluded. Japanese companies appear, for a variety of institutional and cultural reasons, to have had some difficulty partnering with strangers and competitors and that has led to the formation of fewer synergistic and otherwise constructive intra-country cooperation arrangements than corporate Japan arguably needs. That pattern is changing, however, and there is evidence that the rate of intra-country alliances among Japanese firms is accelerating, particularly when the focus of the alliance is technology and innovation.

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  • Lincoln, James R., 2009. "Strategic Alliances in the Japanese Economy: Types, Critiques, Embeddedness, and Change," CEI Working Paper Series 2008-19, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hit:hitcei:2008-19

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Michael R. Darby & Lynne G. Zucker, 1999. "Local Academic Science Driving Organizational Change: The Adoption of Biotechnology by Japanese Firms," NBER Working Papers 7248, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    1. repec:kap:iaecre:v:21:y:2015:i:1:p:81-103 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Masao Nakamura, 2015. "Economic Development and Business Groups in Asia: Japan’s Experience and Implications," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 21(1), pages 81-103, March.

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