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Is the Swedish Central Government a Wage Leader?

Author

Listed:
  • Lindquist, Matthew J.

    () (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)

  • Vilhelmsson, Roger

    () (Swedish Agency for Government Employers)

Abstract

Is the Swedish central government a wage leader? This question is studied empirically in a vector error-correction model using a unique, high quality data set. Private sector salaries are found to be weakly exogenous to the system of equations. This means that the private sector is the wage leader in the long-run model. We also find that salaries in these two sectors do not converge to a common salary in the long-run and that changes in central government salaries do not Granger cause changes in private sector salaries. Together, these findings clearly demonstrate that the central government is not placing undue pressure on salaries in the private sector. The central government is not acting as a wage leader.

Suggested Citation

  • Lindquist, Matthew J. & Vilhelmsson, Roger, 2004. "Is the Swedish Central Government a Wage Leader?," Working Paper Series 8/2004, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:sofiwp:2004_008
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
    2. Osterwald-Lenum, Michael, 1992. "A Note with Quantiles of the Asymptotic Distribution of the Maximum Likelihood Cointegration Rank Test Statistics," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 461-472, August.
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    5. Jacobson, Tor & Ohlsson, Henry, 1994. "Long-Run Relations between Private and Public Sector Wages in Sweden," Empirical Economics, Springer, pages 343-360.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Mikael Stenkula, 2012. "Taxation and entrepreneurship in a welfare state," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 77-97, July.
    2. Gonzalo Fernández-de-Córdoba & Javier Pérez & José Torres, 2012. "Public and private sector wages interactions in a general equilibrium model," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 150(1), pages 309-326, January.
    3. Javier J. Perez & Ana Lamo & Enrique Moral-Benito, 2015. "Does Slack Influence Public and Private Labor Market," EcoMod2015 8792, EcoMod.
    4. Javier Pérez & A. Sánchez, 2011. "Is there a signalling role for public wages? Evidence for the euro area based on macro data," Empirical Economics, Springer, pages 421-445.
    5. Pérez, Javier J. & Rodríguez-Vives, Marta & Depalo, Domenico & Papapetrou, Evangelia & Aouriri, Marie & Campos, Maria M. & Celov, Dmitrij & Pesliakaitė, Jurga & Ramos, Roberto, 2016. "The fiscal and macroeconomic effects of government wages and employment reform," Occasional Paper Series 176, European Central Bank.
    6. Gaetano D’Adamo, 2014. "Wage spillovers across sectors in Eastern Europe," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 523-552, September.
    7. M. Ivanova., 2015. "The Interaction between Public and Private Sector Wages," VOPROSY ECONOMIKI, N.P. Redaktsiya zhurnala "Voprosy Economiki", vol. 7.
    8. Goran Vuksic, 2012. "Sectoral wage dynamics and intersectoral linkages in the context of export competitiveness: the case of Croatia," wiiw Balkan Observatory Working Papers 99, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    9. Camarero, Mariam & D'Adamo, Gaetano & Tamarit, Cecilio, 2014. "Wage leadership models: A country-by-country analysis of the EMU," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(S1), pages 2-11.
    10. repec:onb:oenbwp:y::i:153:b:1 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Ana Lamo & Javier J. Pérez & Ludger Schuknecht, 2012. "Public or Private Sector Wage Leadership? An International Perspective," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 114(1), pages 228-244, March.
    12. Lundborg, Per, 2009. "Distributional Effects of Wage Leadership: Evidence from Sweden," Working Paper Series 6/2009, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    13. Knell, Markus & Stiglbauer, Alfred, 2009. "The impact of reference norms on inflation persistence when wages are staggered," Working Paper Series 1047, European Central Bank.
    14. Annette Zeilstra & Adam Elbourne, 2014. "Follow the leader? Public and private wages in the Netherlands," CPB Discussion Paper 274, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    15. Lamo, Ana & Schuknecht, Ludger & Pérez, Javier J., 2008. "Public and private sector wages: co-movement and causality," Working Paper Series 963, European Central Bank.
    16. Michael Weber, 2016. "Wage Determination and Employment Adjustment in Croatia," CESifo Forum, Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 17(1), pages 22-26, April.
    17. Maria M. Campos & Domenico Depalo & Evangelia Papapetrou & Javier J. Pérez & Roberto Ramos, 2017. "Understanding the public sector pay gap," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 6(1), pages 1-29, December.
    18. Jelena Lausev, 2014. "WHAT HAS 20 YEARS OF PUBLIC–PRIVATE PAY GAP LITERATURE TOLD US? EASTERN EUROPEAN TRANSITIONING vs. DEVELOPED ECONOMIES," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(3), pages 516-550, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    public sector wages; Sweden; vector error-correction model; wage leadership.;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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