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Cointegrating Sectoral Wages in Sweden - a Maximum Likelihood Approach


  • Jocobson, T.
  • Ohlsson, H.


Using a maximum likelihood cointegration approach, we find two long-run relationships between central government, local government, and private sector wages in Sweden. This means that there is one common trend for the three sectoral wages. Private sector wages are weakly exogenous for the estimation of the long-run relationships. This suggests that the private sector is the wage leader. Testing linear restrictions on the estimated cointegrating space, we reject stationarity for the three relative wages using likelihood ratio-tests. The hypotheses of homogeneity for the two cointegrating vectors, i.e., that wages do not diverge in the long run, is also rejected.
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  • Jocobson, T. & Ohlsson, H., 1991. "Cointegrating Sectoral Wages in Sweden - a Maximum Likelihood Approach," Papers 1991t, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
  • Handle: RePEc:fth:uppaal:1991t

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Camarero, Mariam & D'Adamo, Gaetano & Tamarit, Cecilio, 2014. "Wage leadership models: A country-by-country analysis of the EMU," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(S1), pages 2-11.
    2. Afonso, António & Gomes, Pedro, 2014. "Interactions between private and public sector wages," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 39(PA), pages 97-112.
    3. Ana Lamo & Javier J. Pérez & Ludger Schuknecht, 2012. "Public or Private Sector Wage Leadership? An International Perspective," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 114(1), pages 228-244, March.
    4. Christofides, Louis N. & Pashardes, Panos, 2002. "Self/paid-employment, public/private sector selection, and wage differentials," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(6), pages 737-762, December.
    5. J. Lindquist & Roger Vilhelmsson, 2006. "Is the Swedish central government a wage leader?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(14), pages 1617-1625.
    6. Mikaela Backman & Lina Bjerke, 2014. "Returns to higher education: a regional perspective," Chapters,in: Knowledge, Innovation and Space, chapter 10, pages 237-264 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    7. Bender, Keith A, 1998. " The Central Government-Private Sector Wage Differential," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(2), pages 177-220, April.
    8. D'Adamo, Gaetano, 2011. "Wage spillovers across sectors in Eastern Europe," MPRA Paper 27841, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. repec:eee:labchp:v:3:y:1999:i:pc:p:3573-3630 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Jelena Lausev, 2014. "WHAT HAS 20 YEARS OF PUBLIC–PRIVATE PAY GAP LITERATURE TOLD US? EASTERN EUROPEAN TRANSITIONING vs. DEVELOPED ECONOMIES," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(3), pages 516-550, July.
    11. Gaetano D’Adamo, 2014. "Wage spillovers across sectors in Eastern Europe," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 523-552, September.
    12. Lamo, Ana & Schuknecht, Ludger & Pérez, Javier J., 2008. "Public and private sector wages: co-movement and causality," Working Paper Series 963, European Central Bank.
    13. Shigeyuki Hamori & Takeshi Hoshikawa & Junya Masuda & Kunihiro Hanabusa, 2009. "Price and Wage Setting in Japan: An Empirical Investigation," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(1), pages 38-50.
    14. Friberg, Kent, 2003. "Intersectoral Wage Linkages in Sweden," Working Paper Series 158, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
    15. Dustmann, C. & van Soest, A.H.O., 1995. "Generalized switching regression analysis of private and public sector wage structures in Germany," Discussion Paper 1995-44, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    16. Gregory, Robert G. & Borland, Jeff, 1999. "Recent developments in public sector labor markets," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 53, pages 3573-3630 Elsevier.
    17. Johansen, Kare & Strom, Bjarne, 2001. " Wages and Politics: Evidence from the Norwegian Public Sector," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(3), pages 311-331, July.
    18. Javier Pérez & A. Sánchez, 2011. "Is there a signalling role for public wages? Evidence for the euro area based on macro data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 421-445, October.
    19. Joaquín Andaluz, 2011. "Validity of the “Principle of Maximum Product Differentiation” in a unionized mixed-duopoly," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 102(2), pages 123-136, March.
    20. Lundborg, Per, 2009. "Distributional Effects of Wage Leadership: Evidence from Sweden," Working Paper Series 6/2009, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    21. Kent Friberg, 2007. "Intersectoral wage linkages: the case of Sweden," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 161-184, April.
    22. de la Croix, David, 1994. " Wage Interdependence through Decentralized Bargaining," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(4), pages 371-403, December.
    23. Costas Christou, 2013. "The dynamics of wage determination in Romania," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 21(4), pages 713-729, October.
    24. Svenja Gärtner, 2016. "New Macroeconomic Evidence on Internal Migration in Sweden, 1967-2003," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(1), pages 137-153, January.

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