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Clearing vs. Leakage: Does Note monopoly Increase Money and Credit Cycles?

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  • Hortlund, Per

    () (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics)

Abstract

The effects of note monopolisation on the amplitude of money and credit cycles are studied. Swedish bank data for 1871–1915 reveal that money cycles became smaller, but credit cycles larger, after the Bank of Sweden gained a note monopoly in 1904. At the same time, the money multiplier decreased, while the credit multiplier increased. If the central bank's reserve ratio is larger than that of the commercial banks, and if the currency-deposit ratio is sufficiently large, the leakage effect could dominate the loss-of-clearing effect (base expansion), such that the money multiplier decreases. That the credit multiplier simultaneously increased is attributed mainly to an increasing time-demand deposit ratio, which increased the credit capacity of the banking system.

Suggested Citation

  • Hortlund, Per, 2005. "Clearing vs. Leakage: Does Note monopoly Increase Money and Credit Cycles?," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 600, Stockholm School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:hastef:0600
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    File URL: http://swopec.hhs.se/hastef/papers/hastef0600.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Selgin, George, 1994. "Free Banking and Monetary Control," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(427), pages 1449-1459, November.
    2. Selgin, George, 2001. "In-Concert Overexpansion and the Precautionary Demand for Bank Reserves," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(2), pages 294-300, May.
    3. Miron, Jeffrey A, 1986. "Financial Panics, the Seasonality of the Nominal Interest Rate, and theFounding of the Fed," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(1), pages 125-140, March.
    4. Hortlund, Per, 2005. "Is the Law of Reflux Valid?," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 599, Stockholm School of Economics.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Clearing mechanism; Credit expansion; Currency-deposit ratio; Fiduciary money; Free banking; Leakage; Money multiplier;

    JEL classification:

    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers

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