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Political Cleavages and Social Inequalities in Algeria, Iraq, and Turkey, 1990-2019

Author

Listed:
  • Lydia Assouad

    (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, WIL - World Inequality Lab)

  • Amory Gethin

    (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, WIL - World Inequality Lab)

  • Thomas Piketty

    (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, WIL - World Inequality Lab)

  • Juliet-Nil Uraz

    (EUI - European University Institute)

Abstract

This paper draws on political attitudes surveys to document the evolution of political cleavages in light of inequality dynamics in Algeria (2002-2018), Iraq (2005-2018), and Turkey (1991-2018). We investigate how social divides and ethno-religious conflicts shape voting behaviors in these three countries through their interaction with the voting system and the structure of inequalities. Our findings suggest that identity-based voting remains highly interconnected with social disparities and does not offer extensive explanatory power on its own, except in the extreme case of the Iraqi sectarian political system. Socioeconomic factors play a differentiated role depending on the historical and institutional context and have increasingly been at the heart of popular mobilizations outside of the electoral arena.

Suggested Citation

  • Lydia Assouad & Amory Gethin & Thomas Piketty & Juliet-Nil Uraz, 2021. "Political Cleavages and Social Inequalities in Algeria, Iraq, and Turkey, 1990-2019," Working Papers halshs-03215898, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:halshs-03215898
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://shs.hal.science/halshs-03215898
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Thomas Piketty, 2018. "Brahmin Left vs Merchant Right: Rising Inequality & the Changing Structure of Political Conflict," Working Papers hal-02878211, HAL.
    2. Lydia Assouad, 2020. "Charismatic Leaders and Nation Building," Working Papers halshs-02873520, HAL.
    3. Tara Vishwanath & Dhiraj Sharma & Nandini Krishnan & Brian Blankespoor, 2015. "Where are Iraq’s Poor?," World Bank Publications - Reports 22351, The World Bank Group.
    4. Rijkers, Bob & Freund, Caroline & Nucifora, Antonio, 2017. "All in the family: State capture in Tunisia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 41-59.
    5. Roy van der Weide & Christoph Lakner & Elena Ianchovichina, 2018. "Is Inequality Underestimated in Egypt? Evidence from House Prices," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 64(s1), pages 55-79, October.
    6. Lydia Assouad, 2020. "Charismatic Leaders and Nation Building," PSE Working Papers halshs-02873520, HAL.
    7. Amory Gethin, & Sultan Mehmood & Thomas Piketty, 2020. "Social Inequality and the Dynamics of Political and Ethnolinguistic Divides in Pakistan, 1970-2018," Working Papers halshs-03022253, HAL.
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    Cited by:

    1. Amory Gethin & Clara Martínez-Toledano & Thomas Piketty, 2022. "Brahmin Left Versus Merchant Right: Changing Political Cleavages in 21 Western Democracies, 1948–2020," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 137(1), pages 1-48.
    2. Ryo Kambayashi & Sébastien Lechevalier, 2022. "Why do Redistributive Policies Differ across Countries? Analyzing the Multiple Dimensions of Preferences for Redistribution," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 68(4), pages 1032-1057, December.
    3. Angel Solano-Garcia, 2022. "Income inequality and voters’ support for government intervention. A simple political model," ThE Papers 22/04, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada..

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