Does fertility respond to work and family reconciliation policies in France?
The current total fertility rate in France has been increasing over this last ten years and is has reached its highest level since the early 1980s with a rate at 1,98 in 2006. Compared to European standards, this high level of fertility makes France an outlier, in spite of rather similar trends in the transition to adulthood, in partnerships, or in attitudes on birth control or in economic situation (rather low growth, increase in poverty rates). Thus, the French case challenges some of the hypotheses ventured to explain the current low fertility observed in European countries. France's fertility level can be explained by its longstanding family policy, which has changed in-depth since the 1980s to accommodate with women's increasing labour force participation. This policy encompasses a wide range of instruments, based on different actors and motivations, since this policy is aimed to serve different objectives. Despite some ambiguities, family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards 2 or 3 children families in France, and to have bounded the propensity to remain childless. We argue that a key aspect is the favourable context created for the conciliation between work and family through a relatively comprehensive and continuous support over the family life-course. The all set of complementary instruments (financial transfers to large families, parental leave schemes and provision of childcare support) creates a rather secure climate for the decision relating to child bearing. It also explains why the decision to have children or to be in employment is less polarised according to socio-economic status than in other countries.
|Date of creation:||2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Note:||View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00424832|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Del Boca, Daniela & Pasqua, Silvia & Pronzato, Chiara D., 2008. "Market Work and Motherhood Decisions in Contexts," IZA Discussion Papers 3303, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Laroque, Guy & Salanié, Bernard, 2005.
"Does Fertility Respond to Financial Incentives?,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5007, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Guy Laroque & Bernard Salanié, 2008. "Does Fertility Respond to Financial Incentives?," CESifo Working Paper Series 2339, CESifo Group Munich.
- Guy Laroque & Bernard Salanié, 2008. "Does Fertility Respond to Financial Incentives ?," Working Papers 2008-10, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
- Laroque, Guy & Salanié, Bernard, 2008. "Does Fertility Respond to Financial Incentives?," IZA Discussion Papers 3575, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- FFF1Francesco NNN1Billari, 2004. "Becoming an Adult in Europe: A Macro(/Micro)-Demographic Perspective," Demographic Research Special Collections, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 3(2), pages 15-44, April.
- repec:cai:poeine:pope_601_0099 is not listed on IDEAS
- Julie Moschion, 2007.
"Reconciling work and family life: the effect of French family policies,"
Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers)
- Julie Moschion, 2007. "Reconciling work and family life : the effect of french family policies," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne v07073, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
- Laurent Toulemon & Ariane Pailhé & Clémentine Rossier, 2008. "France: High and stable fertility," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 19(16), pages 503-556, July.
- Gilbert Cette & Nicolas Dromel & Dominique Méda, 2005. "Conciliation entre vies professionnelle et familiale et renoncements à l'enfant," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 92(1), pages 263-313.
- Immervoll, Herwig & Barber, David, 2006.
"Can Parents Afford to Work? Childcare Costs, Tax-Benefit Policies and Work Incentives,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1932, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Herwig Immervoll & David Barber, 2005. "Can Parents Afford to Work?: Childcare Costs, Tax-Benefit Policies and Work Incentives," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 31, OECD Publishing.
- Andres Vikat & Zsolt Spéder & Gijs Beets & Francesco Billari & Christoph Bühler & Aline Désesquelles & Tineke Fokkema & Jan M. Hoem & Alphonse MacDonald & Gerda Neyer & Ariane Pailhé & Antonella Pinne, 2007. "Generations and Gender Survey (GGS)," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 17(14), pages 389-440, November.
- Guy Laroque & Bernard Salanié, 2004.
"Fertility and Financial Incentives in France,"
CESifo Economic Studies,
CESifo, vol. 50(3), pages 423-450.
- Guy Laroque & Bernard Salanié, 2003. "Fertility and Financial Incentives in France," Working Papers 2003-32, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
- Laroque, Guy & Salanié, Bernard, 2003. "Fertility and Financial Incentives in France," CEPR Discussion Papers 4064, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Marit Rønsen, 2004. "Fertility and family policy in Norway - A reflection on trends and possible connections," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 10(10), pages 265-286, June.
- Wolfgang Lutz, 2007. "Adaptation versus mitigation policies on demographic change in Europe," Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, vol. 5(1), pages 19-25.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-00424832. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CCSD)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.