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Overview Chapter 6: The diverse faces of the Second Demographic Transition in Europe

Author

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  • Tomáš Sobotka

    (Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (IIASA, VID/ÖAW, WU))

Abstract

This chapter discusses the concept of the second demographic transition (SDT) and its relevance for explaining the ongoing changes in family and fertility patterns across Europe. It takes a closer look at the shifts in values and attitudes related to family, reproduction, and children, and their representation in different chapters in this collection. It re-examines the link between the second demographic transition and fertility, highlights its strong positive association with fertility at later childbearing ages, and suggests that the transition does not necessarily lead to sub-replacement fertility levels. Subsequently, it provides an extensive discussion on the progression of the SDT behind the former ‘Iron Curtain.’ To explain some apparent contradictions in this process, it employs a conceptual model of ‘readiness, willingness, and ability’ (RWA) advocated by Lesthaeghe and Vanderhoeft (2001). It also explores the multifaceted nature of the second demographic transition between different social groups, and points out an apparent paradox: whereas lower-educated individuals often embrace values that can be characterised as rather traditional, they also frequently manifest family behaviour associated with the transition, such as non-marital childbearing, high partnership instability, and high prevalence of long-term cohabitation. This suggests that there may be two different pathways of the progression of the second demographic transition. The concluding section points out the role of structural constraints for the diffusion of the transition among disadvantaged social strata, highlights the importance of the ‘gender revolution’ for the SDT trends, and discusses the usefulness of the SDT framework.

Suggested Citation

  • Tomáš Sobotka, 2008. "Overview Chapter 6: The diverse faces of the Second Demographic Transition in Europe," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 19(8), pages 171-224, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:dem:demres:v:19:y:2008:i:8
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    Cited by:

    1. David De Wachter & Karel Neels, 2011. "Educational differentials in fertility intentions and outcomes: family formation in Flanders in the early 1990s," Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, vol. 9(1), pages 227-258.
    2. Brienna Perelli-Harris & Wendy Sigle-Rushton & Michaela Kreyenfeld & Trude Lappegård & Caroline Berghammer & Renske Keizer, 2010. "The educational gradient of nonmarital childbearing in Europe: emergence of a pattern of disadvantage?," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2010-004, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    3. Massimo Mucciardi & Gustavo Santis, 2017. "Cultural Versus Objective Distances: The DBS-EM Approach," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 130(3), pages 867-882, February.
    4. Avital Manor & Barbara S. Okun, 2016. "Cohabitation among secular Jews in Israel: How ethnicity, education, and employment characteristics are related to young adults' living arrangements," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 35(32), pages 961-990, September.
    5. Evgenia Bystrov, 2012. "The Second Demographic Transition in Israel: One for All?," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 27(10), pages 261-298, August.
    6. Sam Hyun Yoo, 2016. "Postponement and recuperation in cohort marriage: The experience of South Korea," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 35(35), pages 1045-1078, October.
    7. Monika Mynarska & Anna Matysiak, 2010. "Diffusion of cohabitation in Poland," Working Papers 19, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    8. repec:eur:ejesjr:55 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Frederik Peters, 2010. "Späte Mutterschaft als medizinischer Risikofaktor?: Der Einfluss des Alters der Mutter auf das Risiko der Frühgeburt," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 342, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    10. Anna Matysiak, 2011. "Fertility Developments In Central And Eastern Europe: The Role Of Work–Family Tensions," Demográfia English Edition, Hungarian Demographic Research Institute, vol. 54(5), pages 7-30.
    11. Anna Matysiak, 2009. "Is Poland really 'immune' to the spread of cohabitation?," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 21(8), pages 215-234, August.
    12. Monika Mynarska, 2011. "Kiedy mieæ dziecko? Jakoœciowe badanie procesu odraczania decyzji o rodzicielstwie," Working Papers 32, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    13. Mikołaj Szołtysek, 2011. "The genealogy of Eastern European difference: an insider’s view," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2011-014, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    14. Rozemarijn Dereuddre & Bart Van de Putte & Piet Bracke, 2016. "Ready, Willing, and Able: Contraceptive Use Patterns Across Europe," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 32(4), pages 543-573, October.
    15. Barbara Elisabeth Fulda, 2016. "The diversity in longitudinal partnership trajectories during the transition to adulthood: How is it related to individual characteristics and regional living conditions?," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 35(37), pages 1101-1134, October.
    16. Kurek Sławomir & Lange Milena, 2012. "Urbanisation and changes in fertility pattern in Poland and in the selected countries of Western and Southern Europe," Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, Sciendo, vol. 17(17), pages 77-85, January.
    17. Jan M. Hoem & Dora Kostova & Aiva Jasilioniene & Cornelia Mureşan, 2009. "The structure of recent first-union formation in Romania," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2009-002, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    18. Dimiter Philipov & Aiva Jasilioniene, 2008. "Union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia: A life table description of recent trends," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 19(62), pages 2057-2114, December.
    19. Zsolt Spéder & Balázs Kapitány, 2014. "Failure to Realize Fertility Intentions: A Key Aspect of the Post-communist Fertility Transition," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 33(3), pages 393-418, June.
    20. Moorfeld Maria, 2011. "Landscapes in Eastern Germany at a turning point - linkages between population decline, ageing and land consumption," European Countryside, Sciendo, vol. 3(2), pages 29-50, January.
    21. Leen Rahnu & Allan Puur & Luule Sakkeus & Martin Klesment, 2015. "Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 32(56), pages 1519-1566, June.
    22. Jan M. Hoem & Cornelia Mureşan & Mihaela Hărăguş, 2013. "Recent features of cohabitational and marital fertility in Romania," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2013-007, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    23. Martina Štípková, 2015. "Ideational and Economic Causes of the Rise in Non-marital Childbearing in the Czech Republic," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 31(5), pages 473-494, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Europe; family; family change; fertility; second demographic transition; values;

    JEL classification:

    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • Z0 - Other Special Topics - - General

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