IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/hal/journl/halshs-02024739.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The influence of threatening visual warnings on tobacco packaging: Measuring the impact of threat level, image size, and type of pack through psychophysiological and self-report methods

Author

Listed:
  • Olivier Droulers

    () (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Karine Gallopel-Morvan

    () (EA MOS - EA Management des Organisations de Santé - PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité - EHESP - École des Hautes Études en Santé Publique [EHESP], EHESP - École des Hautes Études en Santé Publique [EHESP], IDM - Institut du Management - EHESP - École des Hautes Études en Santé Publique [EHESP])

  • Sophie Lacoste-Badie

    () (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Mathieu Lajante

    (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

Abstract

The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings) displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used–for the first time in this context–to measure the emotions provoked by TVWs. The second aim of this research was to determine whether increasing the size of warnings, and their display on plain packaging (compared with branded packaging) would improve their effectiveness. A within-subjects experiment was conducted. Three variables were manipulated: health warning threat level (high vs. moderate), image size (40% vs. 75%) and pack type (plain vs. branded). A convenience sample of 48 French daily smokers participated. They were exposed to eight different packs of cigarettes in a research lab at the University of Rennes. Smokers' emotions and behavioral intentions were recorded through self-reports. Emotions were also evaluated using psychophysiological measurements: electrodermal activity and facial electromyography. The results revealed that TVWs with a high threat level are the most effective in increasing negative emotions (fear, disgust, valence, arousal) and behavioral intentions conducive to public health (desire to quit, etc.). They also highlight the appeal of increasing the size of the warnings and displaying them on plain packs, because this influences emotions, which is the first step toward behavioral change. Increasing the threat level of TVWs from moderate to high seems beneficial for public health. Our results also confirm the relevance of recent governmental decisions to adopt plain packaging and larger TVWs (in the UK, France, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hungary, etc.).

Suggested Citation

  • Olivier Droulers & Karine Gallopel-Morvan & Sophie Lacoste-Badie & Mathieu Lajante, 2017. "The influence of threatening visual warnings on tobacco packaging: Measuring the impact of threat level, image size, and type of pack through psychophysiological and self-report methods," Post-Print halshs-02024739, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-02024739
    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184415
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-02024739
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-02024739/document
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mathieu Lajante & Olivier Droulers & David Amarantini, 2017. "How Reliable Are “State-of-the-Art” Facial EMG Processing Methods?," Post-Print halshs-01935695, HAL.
    2. Karine Gallopel & Patrick Gabriel & Marine Le Gall-Ely & Sophie Rieunier & Bertrand Urien, 2011. "The use of visual warnings in social marketing: The case of tobacco," Post-Print halshs-00601101, HAL.
    3. Monárrez-Espino, J. & Liu, B. & Greiner, F. & Bremberg, S. & Galanti, R., 2014. "Systematic review of the effect of pictorial warnings on cigarette packages in smoking behavior," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 104(10), pages 11-30.
    4. Mathieu Lajante & Olivier Droulers & Thibaut Dondaine & David Amarantini, 2012. "Opening the « black box » of electrodermal activity in consumer neuroscience research," Post-Print halshs-01109418, HAL.
    5. Gallopel-Morvan, Karine & Gabriel, Patrick & Le Gall-Ely, Marine & Rieunier, Sophie & Urien, Bertrand, 2011. "The use of visual warnings in social marketing: The case of tobacco," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 7-11, January.
    6. McCool, Judith & Webb, Lisa & Cameron, Linda D. & Hoek, Janet, 2012. "Graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packs: Will they make a difference to adolescents?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 74(8), pages 1269-1273.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Anna Borawska & Tomasz Oleksy & Dominika Maison, 2020. "Do negative emotions in social advertising really work? Confrontation of classic vs. EEG reaction toward advertising that promotes safe driving," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 15(5), pages 1-20, May.
    2. Aya Mostafa & Heba Tallah Mohammed & Rasha Saad Hussein & Wafaa Mohamed Hussein & Mahmoud Elhabiby & Wael Safwat & Sahar Labib & Aisha Aboul Fotouh, 2018. "Do pictorial health warnings on waterpipe tobacco packs matter? Recall effectiveness among Egyptian waterpipe smokers & non-smokers," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 13(12), pages 1-20, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Electromyography; Face; Electrophysiology; Fear; Smoking habits; Behavior; Emotions; Public and occupational health;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-02024739. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CCSD). General contact details of provider: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.