IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/fir/econom/wp2006_17.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Exchange Market Pressure: Some Caveats In Empirical Applications

Author

Abstract

The Exchange Market Pressure (EMP) Index, developed by Eichengreen et al. [1994], is widely used to study currency crises as a tool to signal whether pressures on a currency are softened or warded off through monetary authorities’ interventions or whether a currency crisis has originated. In this paper we show how the index is sensitive to some assumptions behind the aggregation of the information available (exchange rates, interest rates and reserves), especially when emerging countries are involved. Specifically, we address the way exchange rate variations are computed and the impact of different definitions of the reserves, and we question the constancy of the weights adopted. These issues compound with the choice of a fixed threshold when crisis episodes are identified through EMP. As a result, the dichotomous crisis variable thus derived when adopted as a dependent variable may lead to varied results in subsequent econometric analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Simone Bertoli & Giampiero Gallo & Giorgio Ricchiuti, 2006. "Exchange Market Pressure: Some Caveats In Empirical Applications," Econometrics Working Papers Archive wp2006_17, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti".
  • Handle: RePEc:fir:econom:wp2006_17
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://local.disia.unifi.it/ricerca/pubblicazioni/working_papers/2006/wp2006_17.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Graciela Kaminsky & Saul Lizondo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1998. "Leading Indicators of Currency Crises," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(1), pages 1-48, March.
    2. Evan Tanner, 2001. "Exchange Market Pressure and Monetary Policy: Asia and Latin America in the 1990s," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 47(3), pages 1-2.
    3. Kumar, Mohan & Moorthy, Uma & Perraudin, William, 2003. "Predicting emerging market currency crashes," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 427-454, September.
    4. Simone Bertoli & Giampiero Gallo & Giorgio Ricchiuti, 2010. "Exchange market pressure: some caveats in empirical applications," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(19), pages 2435-2448.
    5. Robert Engle, 2004. "Risk and Volatility: Econometric Models and Financial Practice," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 405-420, June.
    6. Carmen M. Reinhart & Graciela L. Kaminsky, 1999. "The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 473-500, June.
    7. Graciela L. Kaminsky, 2003. "Varieties of Currency Crises," NBER Working Papers 10193, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Barry Eichengreen & Andrew K. Rose & Charles Wyplosz, 1994. "Speculative Attacks on Pegged Exchange Rates: An Empirical Exploration with Special Reference to the European Monetary System," NBER Working Papers 4898, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Girton, Lance & Roper, Don, 1977. "A Monetary Model of Exchange Market Pressure Applied to the Postwar Canadian Experience," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(4), pages 537-548, September.
    10. Marcel Fratzscher, 2003. "On currency crises and contagion," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(2), pages 109-129.
    11. Jeffrey D. Sachs & Aaron Tornell & Andrés Velasco, 1996. "Financial Crises in Emerging Markets: The Lessons from 1995," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 27(1), pages 147-216.
    12. Morris Goldstein & John Hawkins, 1998. "The Origin of the Asian Financial Turmoil," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp9805, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    13. Pontines, Victor & Siregar, Reza, 2007. "The Yen, the US dollar, and the trade weighted basket of currencies: Does the choice of anchor currencies matter in identifying incidences of speculative attacks?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 214-235, March.
    14. Michael Mussa & Miguel Savastano, 2000. "The IMF Approach to Economic Stabilization," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1999, Volume 14, pages 79-128 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Rose, Andrew K., 1996. "Currency crashes in emerging markets: An empirical treatment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-4), pages 351-366, November.
    16. Fasika Damte Haile & Susan Pozo, 2006. "Exchange Rate Regimes and Currency Crises: an Evaluation using Extreme Value Theory," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(4), pages 554-570, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ahmad K. Naimzada & Giorgio Ricchiuti, 2014. "Complexity with Heterogeneous Fundamentalists and a Multiplicative Price Mechanism," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 43(3), pages 233-247, November.
    2. Simone Bertoli & Giampiero Gallo & Giorgio Ricchiuti, 2010. "Exchange market pressure: some caveats in empirical applications," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(19), pages 2435-2448.
    3. Cardarelli, Roberto & Elekdag, Selim & Kose, M. Ayhan, 2010. "Capital inflows: Macroeconomic implications and policy responses," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 333-356, December.
    4. Scott W. Hegerty, 2014. "Measuring Exchange Market Pressure and Its Contagion in the East African Community," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 82(2), pages 239-257, June.
    5. Scott W. Hegerty, 2012. "How integrated are the exchange markets of the Baltic Sea Region? An examination of market pressure and its contagion," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 12(2), pages 109-122, December.
    6. Fabio Filipozzi & Kersti Harkmann, 2010. "The Financial Crisis in Central and Eastern Europe: the Measures and Determinants of the Exchange Market Pressure Index and the Money Market Pressure Index," Research in Economics and Business: Central and Eastern Europe, Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology, vol. 2(2).
    7. Daniel Stavárek, 2011. "Comparison of Exchange Market Pressure Across the New Part of the European Union," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(0), pages 21-39, July.
    8. Jorge Braga de Macedo & Luis Pereira & Afonso Reis, 2009. "Comparing Exchange Market Pressure across Five African Countries," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 20(5), pages 645-682, November.
    9. Scott W Hegerty, 2013. "Exchange Market Pressure, Output Drops, and Domestic Credit: Do Emerging Markets Behave Differently?," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(4), pages 2583-2595.
    10. Scott W. Hegerty, 2015. "Time-Varying Versus Fixed Weights in Exchange-Market Pressure Indices: Evidence From Tests Using Latin American Data," Bulletin of Applied Economics, Risk Market Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 21-36.
    11. Daniel Stavárek, 2011. "Comparison of Exchange Market Pressure Across the New Part of the European Union," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(0), pages 21-39, July.
    12. HEGERTY, Scott W., 2014. "Exchange Market Pressure And Regional Price Spillovers In Russia, Ukraine, And Belarus," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 14(2).
    13. Abdul Aziz, Muhammad & Widodo, Tri, 2017. "Exchange Market Pressure: Evidences from ASEAN Inflation Targeting Countries," MPRA Paper 80919, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Stavarek, Daniel, 2010. "Determinants of the exchange market pressure in the euro-candidate countries," MPRA Paper 26933, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Franc Klaassen, 2011. "Identifying the Weights in Exchange Market Pressure," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-030/2, Tinbergen Institute.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fir:econom:wp2006_17. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Francesco Calvori). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/dsfirit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.