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When is monetary policy effective?


  • John Ammer
  • Allan D. Brunner


In this paper, we investigate a number of issues that have not been completely addressed in previous studies regarding the possible asymmetric effects of monetary policy. Overall, we interpret our results as weak evidence in favor of sticky-wage and sticky-price theories and strong evidence against credit-rationing theories. First, we find that models that allow for asymmetries with respect to contractionary/expansionary monetary policy fit the data better than models that allow for asymmetries associated with the state of the business cycle. Second, we find that contractionary monetary policy shocks have a much larger effect on output than expansionary policy shocks, although this result is somewhat sensitive to the econometric specification. Finally, we find that monetary policy shocks that occur during economic expansions appear to have about the same effect as shocks that occur during recessions; this result is robust to various econometric specifications.

Suggested Citation

  • John Ammer & Allan D. Brunner, 1995. "When is monetary policy effective?," International Finance Discussion Papers 520, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:520

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Chu, Joonsuk & Ratti, Ronald A., 1999. "On the relevance of distinctions between anticipated, unanticipated expansionary, and unanticipated contractionary monetary policy," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 109-131, March.
    2. Tiff Macklem & Alain Paquet & Louis Phaneuf, 1996. "Asymmetric Effects of Monetary Policy: Evidence from the Yield Curve," Cahiers de recherche CREFE / CREFE Working Papers 42, CREFE, Université du Québec à Montréal.
    3. Tan, Siow-Hooi & Habibullah, Muzafar Shah, 2007. "Business cycles and monetary policy asymmetry: An investigation using Markov-switching models," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 380(C), pages 297-306.
    4. Mohd Zaini Abd Karim & Amy Azhar Mohd Harif & Azira Adziz, 2006. "Monetary Policy and Sectoral Bank Lending in Malaysia," Global Economic Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(3), pages 303-326.

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    Monetary policy ; Monetary theory;


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