The federal funds rate and the implementation of monetary policy: estimating the Federal Reserve's reaction function
Several recent studies have reached quite different conclusions about which variable is the best indicator of the stance of monetary policy. These differences likely reflect varying assumptions about bank and Federal Reserve behavior. This paper takes a detailed and comprehensive look at the implementation of monetary policy and the identification of monetary policy shocks. The paper first outlines a general analytical model for studying and evaluating monetary policy procedures. The model is then used to estimate both the Fed's operational policy objectives and its intermediate objectives. The results can be summarized as follows: First, monetary policy shocks over the past several years have primarily affected the federal funds rate, even during periods when the Fed was reportedly targeting reserves. In addition, the paper finds a statistically-significant liquidity effect in all periods examined, although the effect is quite small. Finally, there is statistical evidence that suggests that the Fed's intermediate objectives have not been stable over time, and these differences appear to be economically important. Taken together, these results indicate that while monetary policy shocks can be uncovered by regressing the funds rate on appropriate variables in the Fed's information set, the reaction function should be estimated over subperiods rather than over the entire 1959-1993 period.
|Date of creation:||1994|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 20th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20551|
Web page: http://www.federalreserve.gov/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/ifdp/order.htm|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Richard G. Sheehan, 1985. "The federal reserve reaction function: does debt growth influence monetary policy?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 24-33.
- Ben S. Bernanke & Alan S. Blinder, 1989.
"The federal funds rate and the channels of monetary transmission,"
89-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Bernanke, Ben S & Blinder, Alan S, 1992. "The Federal Funds Rate and the Channels of Monetary Transmission," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 901-21, September.
- Ben Bernanke, 1990. "The Federal Funds Rate and the Channels of Monetary Transnission," NBER Working Papers 3487, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ben S. Bernanke, 1986.
"Alternative Explanations of the Money-Income Correlation,"
NBER Working Papers
1842, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bernanke, Ben S., 1986. "Alternative explanations of the money-income correlation," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 49-99, January.
- Barro, Robert J, 1978.
"Unanticipated Money, Output, and the Price Level in the United States,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(4), pages 549-80, August.
- Barro, Robert J., 1978. "Unanticipated Money, Output, and the Price Level in the United States," Scholarly Articles 3450988, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Eric M. Leeper & David B. Gordon, 1991.
"In search of the liquidity effect,"
FRB Atlanta Working Paper
91-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Feinman, Joshua N, 1993. "Estimating the Open Market Desk's Daily Reaction Function," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 25(2), pages 231-47, May.
- Gordon, David B & Leeper, Eric M, 1994.
"The Dynamic Impacts of Monetary Policy: An Exercise in Tentative Identification,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(6), pages 1228-47, December.
- David B. Gordon & Eric M. Leeper, 1993. "The dynamic impacts of monetary policy: an exercise in tentative identification," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 93-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- David B. Gordon & Eric M. Leeper, 1992. "The dynamic impacts of monetary policy: an exercise in tentative identification," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 92-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- John P. Judd & John L. Scadding, 1982. "What do money market models tell us about how to implement monetary policy: reply," Working Papers in Applied Economic Theory 108, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Anderson, Richard G & Rasche, Robert H, 1982. "What Do Money Market Models Tell Us about How to Implement Monetary Policy?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 14(4), pages 796-828, November.
- Lombra, Raymond & Moran, Michael, 1980. "Policy advice and policymaking at the federal reserve," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 9-68, January.
- Brunner, Allan D & Lown, Cara S, 1993. "The Effects of Lower Reserve Requirements on Money Market Volatility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 199-205, May.
- Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-52, September.
- Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
- DeRosa, Paul & Stern, Gary H., 1977. "Monetary control and the federal funds rate," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 217-230, April.
- Allan D. Brunner & Cara S. Lown, 1993. "Implementing short-run monetary policy with lower reserve requirements," Proceedings, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Stephen K. McNees, 1986. "Modeling the Fed: a forward- looking monetary policy reaction function," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Nov, pages 3-8.
- Tinsley, Peter A, et al, 1982. "Policy Robustness: Specification and Simulation of a Monthly Money Market Model," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 14(4), pages 829-56, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:466. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marlene Vikor)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.