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Risk and concentration in payment and securities settlement systems

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  • David C. Mills
  • Travis D. Nesmith

Abstract

Large value payment and securities settlement systems are important components of an economy's financial system. Many such systems are operated by central banks and are liquidity intensive. Central banks often provide inexpensive liquidity to facilitate settlement. This leads to a number of policy questions about the provision of such liquidity. To answer these questions, central banks need to understand what factors influence the timing of settlement. This paper offers a model to better understand intraday patterns of settlement and identifies three factors that influence the timing of settlement: the cost of intraday liquidity, a participant's exposure to settlement risk, and system design. Incorporating all three factors enables our model to explain a number of stylized facts concerning behavior within the Federal Reserve's Fedwire fund and securities systems around a major policy change. In particular, the model captures the different responses of the two systems in both the pattern of settlement and the use of intraday liquidity. The results map out how policy interacts with participants' incentives to influence the use of intraday liquidity and the resultant credit exposure of a central bank. The model, therefore, can inform decision-making at central banks.

Suggested Citation

  • David C. Mills & Travis D. Nesmith, 2007. "Risk and concentration in payment and securities settlement systems," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2007-62, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2007-62
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kahn, Charles M & McAndrews, James & Roberds, William, 2003. " Settlement Risk under Gross and Net Settlement," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(4), pages 591-608, August.
    2. Edward J. Green, 1999. "Money and debt in the structure of payments," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 13-29.
    3. Bech, Morten L. & Garratt, Rod, 2003. "The intraday liquidity management game," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 198-219, April.
    4. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
    5. Mills Jr., David C. & Nesmith, Travis D., 2008. "Risk and concentration in payment and securities settlement systems," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 542-553, April.
    6. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
    7. Angelini, P. & Maresca, G. & Russo, D., 1996. "Systemic risk in the netting system," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 853-868, June.
    8. Furfine, Craig H, 2003. " Interbank Exposures: Quantifying the Risk of Contagion," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(1), pages 111-128, February.
    9. Stacy Panigay Coleman, 2002. "The evolution of the Federal Reserve's intraday credit policies," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Feb, pages 67-84.
    10. Heidi Willmann Richards, 1995. "Daylight overdraft fees and the Federal Reserve's payment system risk policy," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Dec, pages 1065-1077.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Martin, Antoine & McAndrews, James, 2010. "A study of competing designs for a liquidity-saving mechanism," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1818-1826, August.
    2. repec:fip:fedhep:y:2013:i:qii:p:30-46:n:vol.37no.2 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Huberto M. Ennis & John A. Weinberg, 2007. "Interest on reserves and daylight credit," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Spr, pages 111-142.
    4. Baglioni, Angelo & Monticini, Andrea, 2010. "The intraday interest rate under a liquidity crisis: The case of August 2007," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 107(2), pages 198-200, May.
    5. ANTOINE MARTIN & JAMES McANDREWS, 2010. "Should There Be Intraday Money Markets?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 28(1), pages 110-122, January.
    6. Enghin Atalay & Antoine Martin & James J. McAndrews, 2008. "The welfare effects of a liquidity-saving mechanism," Staff Reports 331, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    7. Angelo Baglioni & Andrea Monticini, 2013. "Why Does the Interest Rate Decline Over the Day? Evidence from the Liquidity Crisis," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 175-186, October.
    8. Constanza Martínez & Freddy Cepeda, 2015. "Reaction Functions of the Participants in Colombia’s Large-value Payment System," Borradores de Economia 875, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    9. Agueci, Paul & Alkan, Leyla & Copeland, Adam & Pingitore, Kate & Prugar, Caroline & Rivas, Tyisha, 2015. "The financial plumbing of the GCF Repo® Service," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue 2, pages 7-24.
    10. repec:ctc:serie1:def10 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. David Mills & Samia Husain, 2013. "Interlinkages between payment and securities settlement systems," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 61-81, February.
    12. Tom Roberts, 2011. "The Impact of Operational Events on the Network Structure of the LVTS," Discussion Papers 11-7, Bank of Canada.
    13. Thomas Nellen, 2015. "Collateralised liquidity, two-part tariff and settlement coordination," Working Papers 2015-13, Swiss National Bank.
    14. Monticini, Andrea & Ravazzolo, Francesco, 2014. "Forecasting the intraday market price of money," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 304-315.
    15. Merrouche, Ouarda & Schanz, Jochen, 2010. "Banks' intraday liquidity management during operational outages: Theory and evidence from the UK payment system," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 314-323, February.
    16. Bech, Morten & Monnet, Cyril, 2016. "A search-based model of the interbank money market and monetary policy implementation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 32-67.
    17. Morten L. Bech & Antoine Martin & James J. McAndrews, 2012. "Settlement liquidity and monetary policy implementation—lessons from the financial crisis," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Mar, pages 3-20.
    18. Antoine Martin & James J. McAndrews, 2008. "An economic analysis of liquidity-saving mechanisms," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Sep, pages 25-39.
    19. Mills Jr., David C. & Nesmith, Travis D., 2008. "Risk and concentration in payment and securities settlement systems," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 542-553, April.
    20. David A. Marshall & Robert Steigerwald, 2013. "The role of time-critical liquidity in financial markets," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q II, pages 30-46.
    21. Foote, Elizabeth, 2014. "Information asymmetries and spillover risk in settlement systems," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 179-190.

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    Keywords

    Banks and banking; Central ; Interbank market ; Clearing of securities;

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