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GSEs, mortgage rates, and the long-run effects of mortgage securitization

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Our paper compares mortgage securitization undertaken by government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) with that undertaken by private markets, with an emphasis on how each type of mortgage securitization affects mortgage rates. We build a model illustrating that market structure, government sponsorship, and the characteristics of the mortgages securitized are all important determinants of mortgage rates. We find that GSEs generally--but not always--lower mortgage rates, particularly when the GSEs behave competitively, because the GSEs' implicit government backing allows them to sell securities without the credit enhancements needed in the private sector. Using our simulation model, we demonstrate that when mortgages eligible for purchase by the GSEs have characteristics similar to other mortgages, then implicit government backing generates differences in mortgage rates that are similar to those currently observed in the mortgage market (which range between zero and fifty basis points). However, if the mortgages purchased by GSEs differ substantially from other mortgages and the GSEs behave competitively, the simulated spread in mortgage rates can be much larger than that observed in the data.

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  • Jamie Ingpen & Wayne Passmore & Roger Sparks, 2001. "GSEs, mortgage rates, and the long-run effects of mortgage securitization," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-26, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2001-26
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    1. repec:pri:cepsud:141rosen is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Xudong An & Raphael Bostic, 2008. "GSE Activity, FHA Feedback, and Implications for the Efficacy of the Affordable Housing Goals," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 207-231, February.
    3. John M. Quigley, 2006. "Federal credit and insurance programs: housing," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 88(Jul), pages 281-310.
    4. W. Scott Frame & Lawrence J. White, 2005. "Fussing and Fuming over Fannie and Freddie: How Much Smoke, How Much Fire?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(2), pages 159-184, Spring.
    5. Pedro Gete & Franco Zecchetto, 2018. "Distributional Implications of Government Guarantees in Mortgage Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 31(3), pages 1064-1097.
    6. Xudong An & Raphael W. Bostic, 2006. "Have the Affordable Housing Goals been a Shield against Subprime? Regulatory Incentives and the Extension of Mortgage Credit," Working Paper 8572, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    7. Kristopher S. Gerardi & Harvey S. Rosen & Paul S. Willen, 2006. "Do households benefit from financial deregulation and innovation?: the case of the mortgage market," Public Policy Discussion Paper 06-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    8. Seog, S. Hun & Hong, Jimin, 2019. "The efficiency effects of life settlement on the life insurance market," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 395-412.
    9. Willemann, Søren, 2005. "GSE Funding Advantages and Mortgagor Benefits: Answers from Asset Pricing," Finance Research Group Working Papers F-2005-04, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Business Studies.
    10. Dwight Jaffee & John M. Quigley, 2012. "The Future of the Government-Sponsored Enterprises: The Role for Government in the U.S. Mortgage Market," NBER Chapters, in: Housing and the Financial Crisis, pages 361-417, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Affinito, Massimiliano & Tagliaferri, Edoardo, 2010. "Why do (or did?) banks securitize their loans? Evidence from Italy," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 189-202, December.
    12. Gillian Burgess & Wayne Passmore & Shane M. Sherlund, 2005. "The effect of housing government-sponsored enterprises on mortgage rates," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2005-06, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    13. Anthony A. DeFusco & Andrew Paciorek, 2017. "The Interest Rate Elasticity of Mortgage Demand: Evidence from Bunching at the Conforming Loan Limit," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 9(1), pages 210-240, February.
    14. Alex Kaufman, 2014. "The Influence of Fannie and Freddie on Mortgage Loan Terms," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 42(2), pages 472-496, June.
    15. Robert Eisenbeis & W. Frame & Larry Wall, 2007. "An Analysis of the Systemic Risks Posed by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and An Evaluation of the Policy Options for Reducing Those Risks," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 75-99, June.
    16. Wayne Passmore, 2003. "The GSE implicit subsidy and value of government ambiguity," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2003-64, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    17. Zhao, Yunhui, 2016. "Got Hurt for What You Paid? Revisiting Government Subsidy in the U.S. Mortgage Market," MPRA Paper 81083, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Aug 2017.
    18. Kristopher S. Gerardi & Harvey S. Rosen & Paul S. Willen, 2006. "Do households benefit from financial deregulation and innovation?: the case of the mortgage market," Public Policy Discussion Paper 06-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    19. Alex Kaufman, 2012. "The influence of Fannie and Freddie on mortgage loan terms," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-33, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    20. Karan Bhanot & Donald Lien & Margot Quijano, 2008. "Will Pulling Out the Rug Help? Uncertainty about Fannie and Freddie’s Federal Guarantee and the Cost of the Subsidy," Working Papers 0035, College of Business, University of Texas at San Antonio.
    21. Bakoush, Mohamed & Abouarab, Rabab & Wolfe, Simon, 2019. "Disentangling the impact of securitization on bank profitability," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 519-537.
    22. Ms. Evridiki Tsounta, 2011. "Home Sweet Home: Government's Role in Reaching the American Dream," IMF Working Papers 2011/191, International Monetary Fund.
    23. W. Scott Frame, 2009. "The 2008 federal intervention to stabilize Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2009-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.

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