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Empirical Analysis of National Income and So2 Emissions in Selected European Countries


  • Anil Markandya

    (FEEM and World Bank)

  • Suzette Pedroso

    (World Bank)

  • Alexander Golub

    (Environmental Defense)


Data on GDP per capita and sulfur emissions for twelve European countries were analyzed to determine the relationship between emissions and income in these countries. As a whole, the relationship between sulfur emissions and per capita income is a fourth order polynomial and not a quadratic one as found in most studies. When countries were examined individually, seven out of the twelve countries depicted the same relationship. Looking closely at the regulations restricting sulfur emissions in the UK, the impact of all regulations supported the inverted U-shaped Kuznets curve. Individually, however, it is found that only two regulations have statistically significant impacts: Smoke Abatement Act in 1926 (reduced the amount of sulfur associated with a given level of GDP); and Clean Air Act in 1956 (increased the amount of sulfur emissions associated with a given level of GDP).

Suggested Citation

  • Anil Markandya & Suzette Pedroso & Alexander Golub, 2004. "Empirical Analysis of National Income and So2 Emissions in Selected European Countries," Working Papers 2004.1, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  • Handle: RePEc:fem:femwpa:2004.1

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Castiglione, Concetta & Infante, Davide & Smirnova, Janna, 2012. "Rule of law and its implications for the environmental taxation-income path across European Countries," MPRA Paper 39433, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Anna Montini & Roberto Zoboli, 2006. "Municipal Waste Production, Economic Drivers, and ‘New’ Waste Policies: EKC Evidence from Italian Regional and Provincial Panel Data," Working Papers 2006.155, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    3. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Anna Montini & Roberto Zoboli, 2007. "Economic Dynamics, Emission Trends and the EKC Hypothesis New Evidence Using NAMEA and Provincial Panel Data for Italy," Working Papers 2007.24, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    4. Peter Rafaj & Markus Amann & José Siri & Henning Wuester, 2014. "Changes in European greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions 1960–2010: decomposition of determining factors," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 124(3), pages 477-504, June.
    5. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Anna Montini & Roberto Zoboli, 2008. "Environmental Kuznets Curves for Air Pollutant Emissions in Italy: Evidence from Environmental Accounts (NAMEA) Panel Data," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 277-301.
    6. Alvarez-Herranz, Agustin & Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Cantos, José María, 2017. "Energy innovation and renewable energy consumption in the correction of air pollution levels," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 386-397.
    7. Li, Ke & Lin, Boqiang, 2015. "Metafroniter energy efficiency with CO2 emissions and its convergence analysis for China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 230-241.
    8. Turner, Karen & Hanley, Nick, 2011. "Energy efficiency, rebound effects and the environmental Kuznets Curve," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 709-720, September.
    9. Cunha, Barbara & Mani, Muthukumara, 2011. "DR-CAFTA and the environment," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5826, The World Bank.
    10. Kais, Saidi & Sami, Hammami, 2016. "An econometric study of the impact of economic growth and energy use on carbon emissions: Panel data evidence from fifty eight countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 1101-1110.
    11. repec:taf:applec:v:49:y:2017:i:40:p:4083-4098 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Tanger, Shaun M. & Zeng, Peng & Morse, Wayde & Laband, David N., 2011. "Macroeconomic conditions in the U.S. and congressional voting on environmental policy: 1970-2008," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(6), pages 1109-1120, April.
    13. Halkos, George, 2011. "Economy - environment relationship: The case of sulphur emissions," MPRA Paper 45480, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Fosten, Jack & Morley, Bruce & Taylor, Tim, 2012. "Dynamic misspecification in the environmental Kuznets curve: Evidence from CO2 and SO2 emissions in the United Kingdom," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 25-33.
    15. repec:spr:jknowl:v:8:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s13132-015-0323-y is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Duc Khuong Nguyen & Benoît Sévi & Bo Sjö & Gazi Salah Uddin, 2017. "The role of trade openness and investment in examining the energy-growth-pollution nexus: empirical evidence for China and India," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(40), pages 4083-4098, August.
    17. Concetta Castiglione & Davide Infante & Janna Smirnova, 2014. "Is There Any Evidence on the Existence of an Environmental Taxation Kuznets Curve? The Case of European Countries under Their Rule of Law Enforcement," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(10), pages 1-21, October.
    18. Kunnas, Jan & Myllyntaus, Timo, 2010. "Anxiety and technological change -- Explaining the inverted U-curve of sulphur dioxide emissions in late 20th century Finland," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(7), pages 1587-1593, May.

    More about this item


    Environmental Kuznet’s Curve; Europe; Sulfur dioxide emission;

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

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