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Empirical Analysis of National Income and SO 2 Emissions in Selected European Countries

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  • Anil Markandya

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  • Alexander Golub
  • Suzette Pedroso-Galinato

Abstract

The linkage between per capita GDP and sulfur emissions for 12 Western European countries was analyzed over a period of more than 150 years. The analysis also looked at the impact of air pollution regulations on the shape of the income–pollution relationship. At both the aggregate and country levels, we find an inverted U-shaped relationship and the estimated turning points of most countries are plausible. In addition, environmental regulations are found to lower the EKC and they can also shift the turning point of the curve. In some cases, the shift is to the left and in a few to the right. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Suggested Citation

  • Anil Markandya & Alexander Golub & Suzette Pedroso-Galinato, 2006. "Empirical Analysis of National Income and SO 2 Emissions in Selected European Countries," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 35(3), pages 221-257, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:35:y:2006:i:3:p:221-257 DOI: 10.1007/s10640-006-9014-2
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Castiglione, Concetta & Infante, Davide & Smirnova, Janna, 2012. "Rule of law and its implications for the environmental taxation-income path across European Countries," MPRA Paper 39433, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Anna Montini & Roberto Zoboli, 2006. "Municipal Waste Production, Economic Drivers, and ‘New’ Waste Policies: EKC Evidence from Italian Regional and Provincial Panel Data," Working Papers 2006.155, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    3. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Anna Montini & Roberto Zoboli, 2007. "Economic Dynamics, Emission Trends and the EKC Hypothesis New Evidence Using NAMEA and Provincial Panel Data for Italy," Working Papers 2007.24, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    4. Peter Rafaj & Markus Amann & José Siri & Henning Wuester, 2014. "Changes in European greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions 1960–2010: decomposition of determining factors," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 124(3), pages 477-504, June.
    5. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Anna Montini & Roberto Zoboli, 2008. "Environmental Kuznets Curves for Air Pollutant Emissions in Italy: Evidence from Environmental Accounts (NAMEA) Panel Data," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 277-301.
    6. Alvarez-Herranz, Agustin & Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Cantos, José María, 2017. "Energy innovation and renewable energy consumption in the correction of air pollution levels," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 386-397.
    7. Li, Ke & Lin, Boqiang, 2015. "Metafroniter energy efficiency with CO2 emissions and its convergence analysis for China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 230-241.
    8. Turner, Karen & Hanley, Nick, 2011. "Energy efficiency, rebound effects and the environmental Kuznets Curve," Energy Economics, Elsevier, pages 709-720.
    9. Cunha, Barbara & Mani, Muthukumara, 2011. "DR-CAFTA and the environment," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5826, The World Bank.
    10. Kais, Saidi & Sami, Hammami, 2016. "An econometric study of the impact of economic growth and energy use on carbon emissions: Panel data evidence from fifty eight countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 1101-1110.
    11. repec:taf:applec:v:49:y:2017:i:40:p:4083-4098 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Tanger, Shaun M. & Zeng, Peng & Morse, Wayde & Laband, David N., 2011. "Macroeconomic conditions in the U.S. and congressional voting on environmental policy: 1970-2008," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(6), pages 1109-1120, April.
    13. Halkos, George, 2011. "Economy - environment relationship: The case of sulphur emissions," MPRA Paper 45480, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Fosten, Jack & Morley, Bruce & Taylor, Tim, 2012. "Dynamic misspecification in the environmental Kuznets curve: Evidence from CO2 and SO2 emissions in the United Kingdom," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 25-33.
    15. repec:spr:jknowl:v:8:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s13132-015-0323-y is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Duc Khuong Nguyen & Benoît Sévi & Bo Sjö & Gazi Salah Uddin, 2017. "The role of trade openness and investment in examining the energy-growth-pollution nexus: empirical evidence for China and India," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(40), pages 4083-4098, August.
    17. Concetta Castiglione & Davide Infante & Janna Smirnova, 2014. "Is There Any Evidence on the Existence of an Environmental Taxation Kuznets Curve? The Case of European Countries under Their Rule of Law Enforcement," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(10), pages 1-21, October.
    18. Kunnas, Jan & Myllyntaus, Timo, 2010. "Anxiety and technological change -- Explaining the inverted U-curve of sulphur dioxide emissions in late 20th century Finland," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(7), pages 1587-1593, May.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    environmental Kuznets curve; panel data; regulation; sulfur dioxide; Western Europe; C23; O11; Q25; Q28;

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

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