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Incidence of Corporate Income Tax and Optimal Capital Structure: A dynamic analysis

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  • DOI Takero

Abstract

In this study, we analyze the incidence of corporate income tax using a dynamic general equilibrium model. The dynamic macroeconomic model enables us to analyze both the instantaneous and the intertemporal incidence of corporate income tax. We include capital structure (i.e., choices of equity, debt, and retained earnings) in the proposed model in order to implement investment. The model also includes a progressively increasing per unit agency cost on debt. We implement a simulation based on the dynamic model, and measure the incidence of corporate income tax on labor income, when the (effective) corporate income tax rate decreases from 34.62% to 29.74% in Japan. We find that the percentage of the incidence on labor income is about 20%-60%, in the short term (one year), and the percentage of the incidence on capital income is about 40%-80%. In the long term, about 90% of the incidence is on labor income. Thus, almost all of the incidence shifts to labor income in the long term. In contrast, in a neo-classical dynamic general equilibrium model, the entire incidence shifts to labor income in the long term. The difference between these results is caused by the inclusion of the agency cost on debt.

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  • DOI Takero, 2016. "Incidence of Corporate Income Tax and Optimal Capital Structure: A dynamic analysis," Discussion papers 16022, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  • Handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:16022
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    6. Hayashi, Fumio, 1982. "Tobin's Marginal q and Average q: A Neoclassical Interpretation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 213-224, January.
    7. Osterberg, William P., 1989. "Tobin's q, investment, and the endogenous adjustment of financial structure," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 293-318, December.
    8. Mervyn A. King, 1974. "Taxation and the Cost of Capital," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 41(1), pages 21-35.
    9. Alan J. Auerbach, 1979. "Wealth Maximization and the Cost of Capital," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 93(3), pages 433-446.
    10. Homma, Masaaki, 1981. "A dynamic analysis of the differential incidence of capital and labour taxes in a two-class economy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 363-378, June.
    11. Turnovsky, Stephen J., 1982. "The incidence of taxes : A dynamic macroeconomic analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 161-194, July.
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