The Balance-of-payments Constraint: From Balanced Trade to Sustainable Debt
This paper extends the balance-of-payments constraint on growth known as Thirlwall's law to incorporate unbalanced trade and debt accumulation. Assuming that small open economies face a liquidity constraint, the text shows the growth and real-exchange-rate policy rules consistent with a stable ratio of net exports to income. Given such rules, the text shows how the trade balance of a small open economy is residually determined by the ratio of foreign debt to income allowed by international conditions.
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- Anthony Philip Thirlwall, 1979.
"The Balance of Payments Constraint as an Explanation of International Growth Rate Differences,"
Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review,
Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 32(128), pages 45-53.
- Anthony P. Thirlwall, 2011. "The Balance of Payments Constraint as an Explanation of International Growth Rate Differences," PSL Quarterly Review, Economia civile, vol. 64(259), pages 429-438.
- Anthony Philip Thirlwall, 1979. "The Balance of Payments Constraint as an Explanation of International Growth Rate Differences," BNL Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 32(128), pages 45-53.
- Nelson H. Barbosa Filho, 2001. "International Liquidity and Growth in Brazil," SCEPA working paper series. SCEPA's main areas of research are macroeconomic policy, inequality and poverty, and globalization. 2001-04, Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA), The New School.
- Juan Carlos Moreno-Brid, 1999. "On Capital Flows and the Balance-of-Payments-Constrained Growth Model," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 21(2), pages 283-298, January.
- Thirlwall, Anthony P & Hussain, Mohammed Nureldin, 1982. "The Balance of Payments Constraint, Capital Flows and Growth Rate Differences between Developing Countries," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 34(3), pages 498-510, November.
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